2000s Court Cases

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"The day's news tells of a mother who sacrificed six ounces of her blood in a transfusion for her baby girl. Strange that the busy press should even consider this news. A mother who wouldn't consent to a blood transfusion for her child would be much greater news, and the world a sorry place indeed on the day that such news is found!" -- Columnist, Allene Sumner, in 1926.

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Misinterpreting Old Testament prohibitions against eating whole animal blood as a routine food item, the WatchTower Society started teaching its Jehovah's Witness members that receiving a blood transfusion was exactly the same thing as "eating human blood".

"A patient in the hospital maybe fed through the mouth, through the nose, or through the veins. When sugar solutions are given intravenously it is called intravenous feeding. So the hospital's own terminology recognizes as feeding the process of putting nutrition into one's system via the veins. Hence the attendant administering the transfusion is feeding the patient through the veins, and the patient receiving it is eating through his veins." -- The WATCHTOWER magazine, July 1, 1951.

Jehovah's Witnesses were BAMBOOZLED into believing that receiving an infusion of human blood into their body's circulatory system was scientifically the exact same thing as eating or ingesting blood into their body's digestive system. Jehovah's Witnesses refuse to acknowledge that when blood is eaten as "food" that the ingested blood enters the human body's separate and distinct digestive system, where it is treated by the digestive system exactly the same as a hotdog, a potato chip, or any other item of "food". It will be completely digested and broken down into proteins, carbohydrates, fats, and waste -- which are then either assimilated or excreted by the body.

Jehovah's Witnesses refuse to acknowledge the distinction that when human blood is TRANSFUSED into another human's circulatory system that the transfused human blood remains to be human blood and continues to function as human blood. That is the very point of a blood transfusion. The very purpose of a blood transfusion is to SAVE HUMAN LIFE. Blood transfusions are based on RESPECT FOR HUMAN LIFE.

The WatchTower Cult uses Old Testament guidelines regarding the disposal of blood from slaughtered animals to teach Jehovah's Witnesses that blood is "sacred" because blood is the "symbol" of life. Then, in the same breath, the WatchTower Cult turns around and requires Jehovah's Witnesses to SACRIFICE ACTUAL HUMAN LIFE to maintain the SANCTITY OF THE SYMBOL. WatchTower Cult doctrine MORONICALLY places a higher value on the SYMBOL OF HUMAN LIFE than it does ACTUAL HUMAN LIFE.

In fact, the Old Testament permitted the eating of "unbled" animal meat, which the Old Testament equated to eating animal blood itself. In emergency situations, when humans needed to eat unbled meat in order to sustain their life, the Mosaic Law permitted such desperate humans to eat "unbled" meat. Once their life had been saved, those humans were then required for a few days to fulfill the Mosaic Law's requirements for being "unclean". Thus, THE BIBLE RECOGNIZES AND TEACHES that the SUSTAINING OF HUMAN LIFE is MORE IMPORTANT than maintaining the "sanctity" of the mere "symbol" of life. To do otherwise would be doing exactly what the MORONIC WatchTower Cult does. It would make the SYMBOL more SACRED than the THING SYMBOLIZED.

In fact, the WatchTower Cult is MISLEADING JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES TO DISOBEY GOD and violate the Holy Scriptures in one of the most serious ways possible. GOD created humans in HIS image. GOD considers human life to be SACRED. A Jehovah's Witness who extinguishes SACRED HUMAN LIFE in order to MORONICALLY maintain the sanctity of the SYMBOL of that SACRED LIFE varies little from those who profane SACRED HUMAN LIFE by committing suicide. Those Jehovah's Witness Elders who teach and police this MORONIC WATCHTOWER CULT DOCTRINE vary little from MURDERERS. The Bible is clear as to how GOD views MURDER and how GOD views and eventually deals with MURDERERS.

The WatchTower Cult's SATANIC twisting of GOD'S WORD and BAMBOOZLING of its' Jehovah's Witness members in order to establish its own version of the GENERIC CULTIC REQUIREMENT of "POTENTIAL MARTYRDOM FOR ALL - ACTUAL MARTYRDOM FOR A FEW" would be laughable if not for the fact that it has lead to the MEANINGLESS DEATHS OF THOUSANDS OF HUMANS ACROSS PLANET EARTH since 1945, and it will continue to cause the pointless deaths of THOUSANDS MORE IN THE FUTURE until LIBERAL GOVERNMENTS finally wake up and declare "NO MORE OF THIS BACK-DOOR SUICIDE STUPIDITY UNDER THE GUISE OF RELIGIOUS FREEDOM". Legal precedent is already there. Stupid religious belief is unfettered. Stupid religious practice is not.


American law regarding Jehovah's Witnesses and their refusal to accept blood transfusions is somewhat settled and is fairly simple. Competent adults have the constitutional right to refuse a blood transfusion, even if such refusal means they will die. Many Jehovah's Witness parents have exercised their constitutional right to choose death rather than accept a blood transfusion.

Jehovah's Witness Parents will attempt to make the same "death decision" for their minor children, but practically every hospital will attempt to obtain a court order which will permit them to administer a medically necessary blood transfusion over the parent's objections - assuming that the Jehovah's Witness Child is still alive by the time all the legalities are completed.  Borderline areas, such as Jehovah's Witness Mothers pregnant with "fetuses" and Jehovah's Witness Minors approaching "majority", are scenarios in which the WatchTower Society has been slowly chipping away in American courtrooms.  Court cases dealing with such are posted on subsequent webpages.

Readers should keep in mind that the following cases are merely those which could be located.  One should not assume that because no cases are listed in a certain year that no such scenarios went through the courts during that year.  One can probably assume that when many cases are listed for a certain year, such as 1992, then that is, at the very least, the minimum number of cases that may very well occur in any given year. Researchers will also start to notice something not noticed by casual browsers. That is, groupings of cases from the same state, or adjacent states, in a certain year, or consecutive years. This phenomenon was most likely the result of one case getting media attention simply by chance. However, the publicity from that case then brought the issue to the attention of other reporters in the same and nearby coverage areas, who then put such cases on their own "radar screen", and thereafter reported cases that they previously had been missing. It is simply no telling how many 1000s of such cases went "unreported" over the decades in the United States alone. Keeping in mind that the vast majority of Jehovah's Witnesses live in foreign countries, with most of those being third-world countries with bare-bones legal and medical systems, the potential body count is staggering.

Readers should be aware that the reason that few cases have been posted in the past four years is due to tightened confidentiality rules which in many instances now prevent cases from being reported, and in other cases deter cases from being reported due to fear of violating rules. Increasing numbers of JW Parents will mean more instances of children being denied life-saving blood transfusions, not fewer cases.

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PRINCE v. MASSACHUSETTS was a 1944 UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT decision. Although this court case did not directly involve the blood transfusion issue, this SCOTUS decision did define many of the legal principles on which many of the future blood transfusion court cases were decided.  Additionally, this court case also involved the Jehovah's Witnesses - a parent and child(ren).
In the early 1940s, Massachusetts' child labor laws prohibited boys less than twelve years old and girls less than eighteen years old from selling magazines and other literature in any street or public place. Sarah Prince, of Brockton, Massachusetts, was a Jehovah's Witness.  Prince was also the mother of two sons, and the aunt and legal custodian of a nine year girl, named Betty Simmons. Prince was in a habit of selling the "Watchtower" and "Consolation" magazines on the streets of Brockton, and she often took the children with her, and they also sold the literature. Prince had been confronted and sometimes cited by a school truancy officer on multiple occasions for violating the aforementioned child labor laws. 
On the evening on which occurred the incident which gave rise to this case, after being warned again about violating state laws, Prince retorted:
"Neither you nor anybody else can stop me. ... This child [Betty] is exercising her God-given right and her constitutional right to preach the gospel, and no creature has a right to interfere with God's commands."
Prince appealed the convictions for violating the state's child labor laws all the way to SCOTUS.  Prince's argument was that Massachusetts' child labor laws, as applied to the activities for which she was cited, violated the Fourteenth Amendment by denying or abridging Prince's freedom of religion, and by denying Prince the equal protection of the laws. However, SCOTUS affirmed the ruling of the Massachusetts Supreme Court, stating in part:

"As the case reaches us, the questions are no longer open whether what the child did was a "sale" or an "offer to sell" within [Mass statute] or was "work" within [Mass statute]. The state court's decision has foreclosed them adversely to appellant as a matter of state law. The only question remaining therefore is whether, as constituted and applied, the statute is valid. ...

"[Prince] does not stand on freedom of the press. Regarding it as secular, she concedes it may be restricted as Massachusetts has done. Hence, she rests squarely on freedom of religion under the First Amendment applied by the Fourteenth to the states. She buttresses this foundation, however, with a claim of parental right as secured by the due process clause of the latter Amendment. Cf. Meyer v. Nebraska, ... These guaranties, she thinks, guard alike herself and the child in what they have done. Thus, two claimed liberties are at stakeOne is the parent's, to bring up the child in the way he should go, which, for appellant, means to teach him the tenets and the practices of their faith. The other freedom is the child's, to observe these, and among them is 'to preach the gospel ... by public distribution' of 'Watchtower' and 'Consolation', in conformity with the scripture: 'A little child shall lead them.'

"If, by this position, appellant seeks for freedom of conscience a broader protection than for freedom of the mind, it may be doubted that any of the great liberties insured by the First Article can be given higher place than the others. All have preferred position in our basic scheme. Schneider v. State, ... Cantwell v. Connecticut, ... .  All are interwoven there together. Differences there are, in them and in the modes appropriate for their exercise. But they have unity in the charter's prime place because they have unity in their human sources and functionings. Heart and mind are not identical. Intuitive faith and reasoned judgment are not the same. Spirit is not always thought. But, in the everyday business of living, secular or otherwise, these variant aspects of personality find inseparable expression in a thousand ways. They cannot be altogether parted in law more than in life.

"To make accommodation between these freedoms and an exercise of state authority always is delicate. It hardly could be more so than in such a clash as this case presents. On one side is the obviously earnest claim for freedom of conscience and religious practice. With it is allied the parent's claim to authority in her own household and in the rearing of her children. The parent's conflict with the state over control of the child and his training is serious enough when only secular matters are concerned. It becomes the more so when an element of religious conviction enters. Against these sacred private interests, basic in a democracy, stand the interests of society to protect the welfare of children, and the state's assertion of authority to that end, made here in a manner conceded valid if only secular things were involved. The last is no mere corporate concern of official authority. It is the interest of youth itself, and of the whole community, that children be both safeguarded from abuses and given opportunities for growth into free and independent well developed men and citizens. Between contrary pulls of such weight, the safest and most objective recourse is to the lines already marked out, not precisely but for guides, in narrowing the no man's land where this battle has gone on.

"The rights of children to exercise their religion, and of parents to give them religious training and to encourage them in the practice of religious belief, as against preponderant sentiment and assertion of state power voicing it, have had recognition here, most recently in West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette, ...  Previously, in Pierce v. Society of Sisters, ... this Court had sustained the parent's authority to provide religious with secular schooling, and the child's right to receive it, as against the state's requirement of attendance at public schools. And in ... this Court had sustained the parent's authority to provide religious with secular schooling, and the child's right to receive it, as against the state's requirement of attendance at public schools. And in Meyer v. Nebraska, ... children's rights to receive teaching in languages other than the nation's common tongue were guarded against the state's encroachment. It is cardinal with us that the custody, care and nurture of the child reside first in the parents, whose primary function and freedom include preparation for obligations the state can neither supply nor hinder. Pierce v. Society of Sisters, supra. And it is in recognition of this that these decisions have respected the private realm of family life which the state cannot enter.

"But the family itself is not beyond regulation in the public interest, as against a claim of religious liberty.Reynolds v. United States, ...  Davis v. Beason, ... . And neither rights of religion nor rights of parenthood are beyond limitation. Acting to guard the general interest in youth's wellbeing, the state, as parens patriae, may restrict the parent's control by requiring school attendance, regulating or prohibiting the child's labor and in many other ways.  Its authority is not nullified merely because the parent grounds his claim to control the child's course of conduct on religion or conscience. Thus, he cannot claim freedom from compulsory vaccination for the child more than for himself on religious grounds. The right to practice religion freely does not include liberty to expose the community or the child to communicable disease or the latter to ill health or death.People v. Pierson, ... . The catalogue need not be lengthened. It is sufficient to show what indeed appellant hardly disputes, that the state has a wide range of power for limiting parental freedom and authority in things affecting the child's welfare, and that this includes, to some extent, matters of conscience and religious conviction.

"But it is said the state cannot do so here. This, first, because when state action impinges upon a claimed religious freedom, it must fall unless shown to be necessary for or conducive to the child's protection against some clear and present danger, cf. Schenck v. United States, ... and, it is added, there was no such showing here. The child's presence on the street, with her guardian, distributing or offering to distribute the magazines, it is urged, was in no way harmful to her, nor, in any event, more so than the presence of many other children at the same time and place, engaged in shopping and other activities not prohibited. Accordingly, in view of the preferred position the freedoms of the First Article occupy, the statute in its present application must fall. It cannot be sustained by any presumption of validity. Cf. Schneider v. State, ... . And, finally, it is said, the statute is, as to children, an absolute prohibition, not merely a reasonable regulation, of the denounced activity.

"Concededly a statute or ordinance identical in terms with [Mass statute] except that it is applicable to adults or all persons generally, would be invalid. ... But the mere fact a state could not wholly prohibit this form of adult activity, whether characterized locally as a 'sale' or otherwise, does not mean it cannot do so for children.Such a conclusion granted would mean that a state could impose no greater limitation upon child labor than upon adult labor. Or, if an adult were free to enter dance halls, saloons, and disreputable places generally, in order to discharge his conceived religious duty to admonish or dissuade persons from frequenting such places, so would be a child with similar convictions and objectives, if not alone, then in the parent's company, against the state's command.

"The state's authority over children's activities is broader than over like actions of adults. This is peculiarly true of public activities and in matters of employment. A democratic society rests, for its continuance, upon the healthy, well rounded growth of young people into full maturity as citizens, with all that implies. It may secure this against impeding restraints and dangers within a broad range of selection. Among evils most appropriate for such action are the crippling effects of child employment, more especially in public places, and the possible harms arising from other activities subject to all the diverse influences of the street. It is too late now to doubt that legislation appropriately designed to reach such evils is within the state's police power, whether against the parent's claim to control of the child or one that religious scruples dictate contrary action.

"It is true children have rights, in common with older people, in the primary use of highways. But even in such use, streets afford dangers for them not affecting adults. And in other uses, whether in work or in other things, this difference may be magnified. This is so not only when children are unaccompanied, but certainly to some extent when they are with their parents. What may be wholly permissible for adults therefore may not be so for children, either with or without their parents' presence.

"Street preaching, whether oral or by handing out literature, is not the primary use of the highway, even for adults. While for them it cannot be wholly prohibited, it can be regulated within reasonable limits in accommodation to the primary and other incidental uses. But, for obvious reasons, notwithstanding appellant's contrary view, the validity of such a prohibition applied to children not accompanied by an older person hardly would seem on to question. The case reduces itself therefore to the question whether the presence of the child's guardian puts a limit to the state's power. That fact may lessen the likelihood that some evils the legislation seeks to avert will occur. But it cannot forestall all of them. The zealous though lawful exercise of the right to engage in propagandizing the community, whether in religious, political or other matters, may, and at times does, create situations difficult enough for adults to cope with and wholly inappropriate for children, especially of tender years, to face. Other harmful possibilities could be stated, of emotional excitement and psychological or physical injury.Parents may be free to become martyrs themselves. But it does not follow they are free, in identical circumstances, to make martyrs of their children before they have reached the age of full and legal discretion when they can make that choice for themselves. Massachusetts has determined that an absolute prohibition, though one limited to streets and public places and to the incidental uses proscribed, is necessary to accomplish its legitimate objectives. Its power to attain them is broad enough to reach these peripheral instances in which the parent's supervision may reduce, but cannot eliminate entirely, the ill effects of the prohibited conduct. We think that, with reference to the public proclaiming of religion, upon the streets and in other similar public places, the power of the state to control the conduct of children reaches beyond the scope of its authority over adults, as is true in the case of other freedoms, and the rightful boundary of its power has not been crossed in this case.

"In so ruling, we dispose also of appellant's argument founded upon denial of equal protection. It falls with that based on denial of religious freedom, since, in this instance, the one is but another phrasing of the other. Shortly, the contention is that the street, for Jehovah's Witnesses and their children, is their church, since their conviction makes it so, and to deny them access to it for religious purposes, as was done here, has the same effect as excluding altar boys, youthful choristers, and other children from the edifices in which they practice their religious beliefs and worship. The argument hardly needs more than statement, after what has been said, to refute it. However Jehovah's Witnesses may conceive them, the public highways have not become their religious property merely by their assertion. And there is no denial of equal protection in excluding their children from doing there what no other children may do.

"Our ruling does not extend beyond the facts the case presents. We neither lay the foundation "for any [that is, every] state intervention in the indoctrination and participation of children in religion" which may be done "in the name of their health and welfare" nor give warrant for "every limitation on their religious training and activities." The religious training and indoctrination of children may be accomplished in many ways, some of which, as we have noted, have received constitutional protection through decisions of this Court. These and all others except the public proclaiming of religion on the streets, if this may be taken as either training or indoctrination of the proclaimer, remain unaffected by the decision. ... ."

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However, as PROOF that the issues which we address in the following webpages are just as relevant in 2017 as they were in the 1990s, 1980s, 1970s, 1960s, and 1950s, here is a JULY 2017 plea for help published in the social advice column of the major Philippine newspaper. Note that the author of this letter makes it clearer in her second paragraph that she also was a devout Jehovah's Witness until she was shunned by the WatchTower Cult and divorced by her JW Husband. Readers should also take from this letter how the WatchTower Cult is less careful in third-world countries about doing things which would instantly receive bad publicity in Europe or North America.

Dear Emily, 

My husband of 11 years left me because I allowed my daughter to have a blood transfusion after she contracted dengue. My husband is a devout Jehovah's Witness and his religion believes that having a blood transfusion is a sin against God. I can't believe how selfish he is. Our daughter's life was at stake and she needed blood! He said this procedure would make Jehovah angry. He said he was willing to sacrifice our daughter's life to please God. Without his permission, I donated my own blood for my daughter. 

Since I have broken this rule, my husband dumped me. It's heartbreaking that my husband put his religion first. He even warned that our daughter and I would be punished for what I've done. It's been seven months since my husband left us. I am now a solo parent. My husband even refuses to give financial support because he said he didn't want to support a disobedient wife and daughter. Even my church has disowned me. My daughter and I are not allowed to attend services at Kingdom Hall anymore. Our fellow Jehovah Witnesses friends won't even help me or talk to me. But I'm still lucky I have my family to back me up. Am I a bad Christian? Does God still love me?



IN RE DEYANTA ASHLEY is an ongoing 2016 Wisconsin child custody case relating to his JW Mother's ongoing refusal to consent to life-saving blood transfusions. African-American Jehovah's Witness Mother, Nhandi Imani Ashley, age 25, delivered 40 ounce Deyanta Ashley three months premature in September 2016. (Media articles make no mention of a "father".) A blood transfusion was needed soon after the delivery in order to prevent brain damage and damage to internal organs. When Nhandi I. Ashley refused to give consent for the necessary blood transfusion due to her stringent religious beliefs as one of Jehovah's Witnesses, Wisconsin's CPS sought legal intervention. CPS was granted authorization to consent to the needed blood transfusion, but refused to grant full custody of the baby to CPS. As anticipated, CPS has subsequently had to seek custody again, but once again the WISCONSIN FOOL masquerading as a "judge" refused to grant CPS full custody Deyanta Ashley, whom is still racking up a large hospital bill for taxpayers.

NHANDI ASHLEY v. ROBERT D. KEITH JR. In September 2016, Nhandi Ashley filed a family court case in Milwaukee County which named Robert David Keith Junior as respondent. Change of venue requested.

NHANDI ASHLEY v. ROBERT D. KEITH JR. was a June 2015 child paternity and child support case.

NHANDI ASHLEY v. DEYANTA LINDSEY was a June 2015 child paternity case.


WISCONSIN v. NHANDI ASHLEY was a May 2010 arrest in Milwaukee County on charges of "Robbery With Use Of Force", "Burglary Building Or Dwelling"and "Battery". Nhandi Ashley pled "Guilty" to the Burglary and Battery charges.

WISCONSIN v. NHANDI ASHLEY was a December 2010 arrest in Milwaukee County on charges of "Criminal Damage To Property" and "Bail Jumping Felony". Nhandi Ashley pled "Guilty" to the Damage To Property charge.

WISCONSIN v. NHANDI ASHLEY was an August 2013 arrest in Milwaukee County on charges of "Probation Violation", "Failure To Transfer Title""Improper Use of Registration Plates", "Operating Vehicle After Revocation", and a traffic violation. Outcomes unknown. Nhandi Ashley has multiple traffic charges over recent years, some of which may be duplicates of aforementioned charges.


IN RE GABRIEL ZEPEDA was a May 2012 Texas case in which doctors at Houston's Texas Children's Hospital were forced to obtain a court order granting permission to perform life-sustaining heart surgery, including administering necessary blood transfusions, to the two month old son of unidentified Mexican Jehovah's Witness Parents, who refused to grant their consent based on WatchTower teachings. Gabriel Zepeda was born with a rare congenital condition in which his cardiovascular system has holes which fill his lungs with blood. Notably, Texas Children's Hospital was for years the hospital that Jehovah's Witnesses around the USA flocked to due to that hospital's reputation for kowtowing to the WatchTower Cult and Jehovah's Witnesses. What rarely ever was mentioned in the media propaganda was the hospital's policy of always having blood transfusions as a "back up" if such became necessary to save the life of a minor. Apparently, these Mexicans did not understand the parsing of language between the Cult and the Hospital.


In August 2011, the Broward County Florida State Attorney's Office told a reporter that just in the past 3 years that his office had handled a dozen court cases, just in that single county, where Jehovah's Witness Parents had refused to consent to life-saving blood transfusions for their minor children. Stated that office, "[Jehovah's Witness Parents] want the state to get involved to save their kid, so they don't have to answer to their congregation."

In August 2011, the 4 year-old daughter of unidentified Jehovah's Witness Parents, who live in North Miami Beach, Florida, needed blood transfusions during surgery to remove a brain tumor at Joe DiMaggio Children's Hospital in Hollywood. In this case, although the JW Parents refused to give their consent for the transfusions, they also told the hospital that they would not object if the hospital sought a court order to administer the transfusions. The JW Parents did not even appear at the court hearing. Interestingly, the child's sister later told a reporter that transfusions were not needed during the surgery, while the local DA said that transfusions were administered.

Starting in 1993, Florida law does not permit doctors or hospitals to appeal directly to their local court for judicial intervention in these cases, but rather forces hospitals to go through the additional legal hoop of asking the local State Attorney's Office to do so for them. In this case, the local SA noted that some local JWs are smart enough to play the system from both ends. The JWs object just enough to satisfy their WatchTower Cult minders, while hoping that the state steps in and orders blood transfusions to save their children's lives.


In December 2010, an unidentified Jehovah's Witness Teenager in Palm Beach County, Florida, who was suffering from life-threatening anemia, received a court-ordered blood transfusion after their Jehovah's Witness Parents refused to grant consent to doctors.


IN RE ROCK SANOZIER JR. was a June 2011 Florida court decision. African-American Jehovah's Witness Parents, Rock W. Sanozier, age 40, and Jean R. Sanozier, age 44, of Fort Lauderdale, Florida took their three year-old son, who suffers with sickle-cell anemia, to Broward General Medical Center on June 21, 2011, where the child was diagnosed with pneumonia and a spleen clogged with blood. After treatments with various medications failed to help the child, the JW Parents were informed that only blood transfusions, and possibly removal of the spleen, would save their son's life. However, Rock Sanozier and Jean Sanozier refused to give doctors permission for life-saving blood transfusions. ***The Sanoziers parroted suggestions published in WatchTower publications that a blood transfusion would give their son the "personality" of the blood donor, and refused to grant their consent. Doctors were forced to seek an emergency court order from the local Broward County courts. Permission for the life-saving blood transfusions was granted just as the JW child neared death. It is assumed that the child's life was saved, but due to tightened confidentially rules (HIPAA) , the hospital was not allowed to comment further, and the parents have not responded to media requests for further info.

***Having been reared as a 4th generation Jehovah's Witness, this editor's remembers caucasian Jehovah's Witness Parents, Pete and Dorothy Blackford (both deceased), lamenting the fact that their son Richard Blackford was marrying an African-American (google offspring of this marriage). They blamed his pick of an African-American spouse on the fact that a blood transfusion had been forced on him at birth. They said that they had always wondered why he had always "liked" African-Americans since he was a child, and given his choice of a wife, they now "knew" that he must have been given blood from an African-American donor.



Cory Hill and Stefanie Hill are Jehovah's Witnesses living in Tupelo, Mississippi. In 2006, this JW Couple's first daughter was successfully delivered by cesarean section at North Mississippi Medical Center. Stefanie Hill again became pregnant in 2008, and Dr. Kristen Turner, an obstetrician and staff physician at NMMC, suspected Hill might have intrauterine growth retardationand preeclampsia. Hill was admitted to NMMC for treatment and monitoring. Her unborn child was observed to lack fetal heart tone variability and decelerations. The Hills told NMMC physicians they would not consent to any blood transfusions. Dr. Turner concluded it would be best to proceed with an emergency cesarean section. In June 2008, Hill gave birth to a fifteen week premature baby girl, Makayla Hill, who weighed less than a pound.

On or about June 11, 2008, the attending neonatologist, Dr. Bryan Darling, believed Makayla needed a blood transfusion. The Hills would not consent. An emergency hearing was held that day. The court found the Hills' refusal to accept a transfusion was"medical neglect". A Temporary Emergency Order was issued by the Youth Court of Lee County, Mississippi. This order appointed the Lee County Department of Human Services as custodian of Makayla. DHS consented for Makayla to receive blood transfusions. Makayla died on June 30, 2008.

Thereafter, the Hills filed a legal motion to continue the custody hearing of Makayla Hill; filed a legal motion for an order setting aside the finding of medical neglect; filed a legal motion seeking release of the court file and DHS intake records; and filed a legal motion for an autopsy. All this gives the appearance of attempting to completely blame the death of their 15 week premature baby on the doctors and hospital staff who did everything in their power to save that child's life.

In March 2009, the Hills petitioned the state court for even more hospital records. At some point, it appears that a federal lawsuit also ensued regarding the release of even more records from NMMC.

In October 2009, the Hills filed their main federal lawsuit against Doctors Turner and Darling, NMMC, and DHS, alleging a long list of legal wrongs. In September 2010, the USDC summarily dismissed ALL CLAIMS against the two doctors. Outcome of case against NMMC and DHS unknown, but each foreseeable.


IN THE MATTER OF AMESHA BINNS was a 2009 Indiana court decision. In May 2009, a daughter weighing less than 2 pounds was born 10 weeks prematurely to Pierre A. Binns Sr. and Stephanie C. Binns at Fort Wayne's Dupont Hospital. Suffering from anemia, the African-American Jehovah's Witness Parents refused to give their consent for any blood transfusions that might be needed to prevent their child from dying. Stephanie Binns was quoted by reporters as professing: "All our beliefs are Bible-based. It's not like we're trying to hurt our child. We're trying to prevent our child from being hurt." 

Richard D. Dellinger, a MORONIC member of the WatchTower Society's local Hospital Liaison Committee, told reporters that blood transfusions are forbidden by the Bible and were unproven medically. That FOOL ran around proclaiming that doctors could not guarantee that administering blood transfusions would save the life of Amesha Binns, or any other life. Duuuuhhhhh!!!! Anyone with a three-digit IQ knows that no doctor can "guarantee" the success of any medical treatment. At best, some doctors will guestimate the "odds" of success. Dupont Hospital sought and obtained an emergency court order authorizing any needed transfusions. The Hospital testified that Baby Girl Binns was in the neonatal intensive care unit, and would need at least one blood transfusion and possibly more. Outcome unknown.

ON APPLICATION OF VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY MEDICAL CENTER was a December 2007 Tennessee court decision in which the Hospital was forced to seek court authorization in order to perform necessary surgery, including using necessary blood products and transfusion, to save the life of a one-week old baby after its Jehovah's Witness Parents refused to consent to the surgery. The female child was born with a life-threatening congenital heart condition. Doctors needed to perform a cardiac catherterization which required that the baby be put on a cardiac bypass pump which was primed with blood and blood products. Without the surgery, there was an 80% chance the baby would die. Facing the probability that their newborn daughter would die, the JW parents stuck with their WatchTower faith, and refused to allow the operation. However, Davidson County Chancellor Richard Dinkins ordered doctors to go ahead with surgery. A spokesperson for Vanderbilt University Medical Center stated that the hospital typically has to go to court two or three times a year to force Jehovah's Witnesses Parents to allow blood-related treatment for their children.
IN THE MATTER OF JACOB AZEVEDO was a 2007 Massachusetts court decision. Identical twin boys, Miqueias Azevedo and Jacob Azevedo, were born on August 15, 2007, to Jehovah's Witness Parents, Jose Azevedo and Maria Azevedo. The parents had already been made aware by an ultrasound that Jacob Azevedo would be born with a heart defect known as "transposition of the great arteries", and that Jacob would die unless he had corrective open-heart surgery. The surgery would require Jacob to be connected to a bypass machine primed with donated blood, which is a procedure that Jehovah's Witnesses equate to a blood transfusion prohibited by the WatchTower Society.
When the twins were born, doctors at Boston's Brigham and Women's Hospital initially were left with the impression that the parents would consent to the required surgery, given that they had had weeks to contemplate whether they would allow their newborn to die. However, Jose Azevedo and Maria Azevedo ultimately refused to give their consent. Prepared for such, the hospital sought court intervention. Juvenile Court Judge Terry Craven, who later stated that she routinely heard about six such cases every year, conducted a hearing at the hospital, and then ordered the life-saving surgery. The surgery was successful, and Jacob Azevedo was doing well at six months.
Judge Craven stated that prior to the start of the hearing that one of Jacob's grandparents, who also is a Jehovah's Witness, clutched her hand, looked in her eyes, and said, "Save my grandson".  However, Maria Azevedo reportedly later stated that the doctors would have to answer for the transfusion, not her, nor the baby. "It wasn't Jacob's decision. ... We took our stand and never compromised. Jehovah knows that I did not compromise my faith. What [the doctors] decided to do, that's between them and God. We don't judge them." Husband and father, Jose Azevedo stated, "God will have to analyze the situation. I cannot speak for him, but I know that God is a merciful God, and he does forgive."
Sometime after midnight, on February 15, 2006, 11 year-old Clay Ether, Jr., of Chicago, Illinois, was stabbed at a friend's apartment during an argument that arose over a video game. The boy's Jehovah's Witness Mother, named Kallie Shine Ether, had called her son home from that same apartment, at around 10:00 PM, to the mother's own apartment that Clay shared with his 7 year-old sister, Brianna Ether. However, "C.J." apparently later sneaked backed to that friend's apartment.
Sometime before 1:30 AM, with blood pouring from his chest, Clay Ether woke his mother, and told her that he had been stabbed. Kallie Ether first called 9-1-1, before then telephoning her sister, Vivian Shine.  Kallie Ether locked herself and the two children in her bedroom, and waited for help to arrive. Although the specifics are unclear, responders may not have arrived until around 2:30 AM. If so, one can't help but wonder whether the 9-1-1 operator was made to understand how serious was the call.
In any event, Clay Ether, Jr. was declared dead at 3:10 AM, at Loyola University Medical Center. Ether reportedly had suffered multiple stab wounds to the chest, and evidently a massive loss of blood. Given that the youngster was permitted a Jehovah's Witness funeral, and given the above details, one can't help but wonder whether blood transfusions had been an issue somewhere in the scenario. In addition to his mother and younger sister, Clay Ether, Jr. was survived by his estranged father, Clay Ether, Sr., and an older sister, named Latoya Shine, and a brother, named Cortez Boyd. 
IN RE MATTER OF APPOLLO RAYMOND was a 2005 Florida court decision. In July 2005, 12-year-old African-American Appollo Raymond, of Fort Myers, Florida, was admitted to Children's Hospital due to complications of sickle cell anemia. What started as a pain crisis, fairly common in sickle cell, turned into pneumonia and blockage of most of Appollo's left lung. Within three days of hospitalization, Appollo was listed in "serious condition".  His lung capacity was down to 50 percent, and he had developed acute chest syndrome. The physicians at Children's Hospital determined that blood transfusions were medically necessary to save Appollo's life. The boy's African-Caribbean mother, Leslie Raymond, refused to let her son have a blood transfusion, because she is a member of the Jehovah's Witnesses.  Jack Schiefelbein, a member of the Jehovah's Witnesses local Hospital Liaison Committee, had submitted materials to the physicians which were not even relevant to Appollo's deteriorating condition.
Children's Hospital petitioned for guardianship and authority to administer blood transfusions.  The Hospital representative testified:  "We are 48 hours behind the normal standard of care. He should have been transfused 48 hours ago. We may be beyond the point of no return".  He said, if the transfusion went well, Appollo's prognosis was good because this was his first hospitalization since January 2000.  Judge James Seals said:  "This is a very difficult balancing act for the court. ... I try to give every deference to the religious preference of the parent, but the life interest of the child supersedes the liberty interest of the parent."  In the end, Judge Seals said that he believed the mother's religious principles posed a threat to the child, and the Hospital's petition was granted.


ON APPLICATION OF NORTHEAST GEORGIA MEDICAL CENTER was a 2005 Georgia court decision.  In June 2005, an unidentified Gainsville, Georgia area Jehovah's Witness couple refused to permit doctors at the Northeast Georgia Medical Center to administer a medically required blood transfusions to their premature infant. The Medical Center petitioned the local court for temporary guardianship and authority to administer the blood transfusions, which their doctors testified more likely than not were necessary to save the infant's life. Superior Court Judge John Girardeau granted the hospital's petition.

IN RE BABY CARTER was a 2004 Florida court decision.  In May 2004, Deliah Antonette Floyd, age 34, of Jacksonville, Florida prematurely delivered a baby -- three months early -- at Baptist Medical Center, and was transferred to ICU at Wolfson Children's Hospital. When doctors informed Deliah Floyd Carter that the 1 pound, 6 ounces infant would need a blood transfusion to survive, she and the infant's father, Doward Dermaine Carter Sr., a Jacksonville Firefighter, informed the hospital that both parents were Jehovah's Witnesses, and that neither would consent to blood transfusions. The Hospital then petitioned the Duval Circuit Court for guardianship and authorization to administer life-saving transfusions. Petition granted.
JASON SOTO and REBECCA SOTO v. VALLEY HOSPITAL MEDICAL CENTER and MICHELE NICHOLS, R.N. was a 2004 Nevada Supreme Court decision.  Jerry H. Mowbray of Reno, Nevada filed an Amicus Curiae brief on behalf of "Christian Congregation of Jehovah's Witnesses", a WatchTower Society subsidiary.  WatchTower Society attorney, Donald T. Ridley, represented Jason and Rebecca Soto.
Identical twin boys were prematurely born on June 11, 2001, at Valley Hospital, to Jason and Rebecca Soto.  Prior to the birth, Rebecca Soto had been hospitalized due to twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, a condition in which the babies' circulatory systems were joined at the placenta, causing blood volume to be preferentially directed to one twin, L.S., and causing the other twin, H.S., to be anemic. To alleviate H.S.'s anemic condition, doctors massaged the umbilical cord, directing blood toward H.S.,thereby naturally transfusing H.S. with blood. Although H.S. was stillborn, doctors successfully revived him seven minutes after birth. Despite a normal blood platelet count, H.S. remained critically ill, requiring a ventilator to assist his breathing and medications to help his circulation and heartbeat. Because of H.S.'s chronic anemic state prior to birth, physicians monitored his blood platelet count over the next few days. The hospital was also aware that, consistent with their religious beliefs as Jehovah's Witnesses, Jason and Rebecca Soto objected to the administration of blood transfusions to their twin boys.

On June 17, 2001, H.S.'s blood platelet count had dropped to such a degree that the attending physician, Dr. Martha Knutsen, felt that H.S.'s life was in jeopardy if a transfusion was not immediately performed. Furthermore, a medical alternative to blood transfusion was not available. Without parental consent, Dr. Knutsen transfused H.S. with blood platelets. Despite the transfusion, H.S.'s condition remained critical.

On Monday, June 18, 2001, Valley Hospital petitioned the Eighth Judicial District Court, ex parte, for temporary guardianship of both H.S. and L.S. The petition was based on "the substantial and immediate risk of physical harm, potential death, and the emergency circumstances surrounding the health and well being" of both children and requested a "special" guardianship to "provide for the medical care of the twin children."  An attached affidavit of Dr. Barry Perlin stated that a significant probability existed that H.S. and L.S. would require a blood transfusion within the next thirty days to survive. Furthermore, if a transfusion were needed, the transfusion would need to be initiated in less than two hours after the emergency arose.

On Monday afternoon, June 18, 2001, the district court granted temporary guardianship on an emergency basis for the purpose of consenting to blood transfusions and to other medical care as deemed necessary by the hospital for both children. The order required that Jason Soto and Rebecca Soto be given notice "as soon as practical." The district court also set a hearing for the next morning at 8:45 a.m. and ordered that Jason Soto and Rebecca Soto receive notice of the hearing by 7:00 p.m. that evening, June 18. The parents received notice that afternoon.

On June 19, 2001, Jason Soto and Rebecca Soto appeared in proper person at the hearing. Jason Soto expressed a concern that, while Valley Hospital was accusing him and his wife of medically neglecting their children, no investigation was being conducted, and that neither the State nor Child Protective Services was present. The district court, concerned with the children's health, continued the hearing to Wednesday afternoon, June 20, 2001, so that medical experts could be obtained and Jason and Rebecca S. could obtain counsel.

On June 20, 2001, Jason Soto and Rebecca Soto appeared with counsel. At the hearing, Dr. Knutsen testified concerning H.S.'s critical condition and his continued need for medical attention, with the real probability that he was at risk for immediate medical intervention, including blood transfusions. Jason Soto and Rebecca Soto argued that H.S.'s condition was stable and that an immediate medical emergency did not exist. The parents also reiterated their concern that Valley Hospital should have brought a petition under NRS Chapter 432B (Protection of Children from Abuse and Neglect). The district court responded that NRS ____ was less intrusive for the parents, and that NRS Chapter 432B would not necessarily provide additional protections. Furthermore, the district court reasoned that when an emergency presented itself, there would not be time to obtain a court order. The district court's final order ratified the blood transfusion given to H.S. on June 17, 2001, and extended the temporary guardianship as to H.S. only and for "the limited purpose of providing consent for the administration of blood and/or blood products" for thirty days. The district court further ordered that H.S. was not to be "REMOVED" from Valley Hospital without the hospital's consent. Barring any unforeseen events, L.S. would not likely require a blood transfusion, and therefore, the district court did not extend the temporary guardianship to him.

Jason Soto and Rebecca S. filed a notice of appeal of the district court's final order concerning Valley Hospital's temporary guardianship of H.S.  The Nevada Supreme Court affirmed the order of the district court appointing Valley Hospital as temporary guardian of minor child H.S., stating in part:
"In the midst of an emergency, the district court was confronted with the task of balancing the competing interests of the child, the parents, the hospital and the State. Throughout the proceedings, the district court took numerous steps to protect the interests of the child and the parents, including requiring notice and a hearing within twenty-four hours after the original order, allowing Jason and Rebecca time to obtain counsel prior to reaching a final determination, protecting Jason and Rebecca's privacy interests, requiring the hospital to provide medical testimony regarding H.S.'s condition and limiting the final order to only those powers necessary to protect H.S.'s interests. We therefore conclude that the district court did not abuse its discretion when it awarded Valley Hospital temporary guardianship of H.S. pursuant to NRS ______.  We do not perceive the provisions of NRS _____  as governing exclusively in cases involving minors and medical emergencies. ... ...
"Other jurisdictions have uniformly held that when medical treatment is available and necessary to save a minor's life, the state may intervene. ... Jason and Rebecca concede that the parents' right to the care, custody and control of their children is not absolute. However, because the issue of a state's right to compel the administration of a blood transfusion to a minor when the parents oppose the treatment is an issue of first impression in Nevada, we will address it here.

"'Substantive due process guarantees that no person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property for arbitrary reasons.'" The Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment protects those liberty interests that are deemed fundamental and are 'deeply rooted in this Nation's history and tradition.' Certain family privacy rights, including the parent-child relationship, have therefore been recognized as fundamental rights. We have adopted a 'reasonableness test' to address family privacy cases involving 'competing interests within the family.' This test '"implicitly calibrates the level of scrutiny in each case to match the particular degree of intrusion upon the parents' interests."'

"While a parent has a fundamental liberty interest in the 'care, custody, and management' of his child, that interest is not absolute.  'The state also has an interest in the welfare of children and may limit parental authority,' even permanently depriving parents of their children. Therefore, while Jason and Rebecca have a parental interest in the care of their son, both the State and H.S. have an interest in preserving the child's life. As H.S. is unable to make decisions for himself, the State's interest is heightened. Jason and Rebecca's liberty interest in practicing their religion must also give way to the child's welfare. Hence, the district court found that Jason and Rebecca's refusal to consent to treatment put H.S.'s life at substantial risk. Additionally, the State has an interest in protecting 'the ethical integrity of the medical profession,' and in allowing hospitals the full opportunity to care for patients under their control, especially when medical science is available to save that patient's life.

"Here, the child's interest in self-preservation and the State's interests in protecting the welfare of children and the integrity of medical care outweigh the parents' interests in the care, custody and management of their children, and their religious freedom. The combined weight of the interests of the child and the State are great and, therefore, mandate interference with Jason and Rebecca's parental rights."


IN RE JADA THOMAS was a 2004 Arkansas court decision. In June 2004, Jada Thomas, a minor, was admitted at Arkansas Children's Hospital. Although needing heart surgery in order to save her life, Jada's mother, Stephanie Thomas, refused to consent to necessary blood transfusions based on what she had been taught as a Jehovah's Witness by the WatchTower Society. The Hospital sought an emergency court order allowing the procedure if and when such became necessary during the heart surgery. Outcome of surgery unknown.
IN RE K.S. was a 2003 Ohio court case. Female baby, K.S., was born in West Plains, Missouri, on February 7, 2003, to Jehovah's Witness Parents. She was born with a diaphragmatic hernia and hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome is fatal in all untreated cases within six weeks and is fatal in nearly all treated cases. On February 10, 2003, K.S. was transferred to St. Louis Children's Hospital, which advised surgery, but with the required possibility of a blood transfusion. The JW Parents refused to consent to the possibility of blood transfusions.
K.S. was referred to Columbus Children's Hospital, in Ohio, which offered to do bloodless surgery. K.S. was transferred to Columbus Children's Hospital on February 12, 2003. She arrived in respiratory distress. CCH immediately admitted her to its intensive care unit and placed her on a ventilator. CCH also wanted to perform surgery on K.S. immediately because it reasonably expected her to die without it. However, CCH had to wait because K.S.'s condition made her too unstable to survive the surgery. The additional delay threatened K.S.'s life. Her lungs collapsed on February 15, 2003. On February 18, 2003, CCH performed bloodless first stage surgery on K.S. On March 11, 2003, CCH repaired K.S.'s diaphragmatic hernia.
K.S. required continuing intensive medical attention. On March 17 and 26, 2003, CCH administered blood transfusions to K.S. under court order to preserve her life. Throughout her stay, CCH administered intensive care without which K.S.'s condition would have deteriorated. K.S. died on March 28, 2003.
IN THE MATTER OF BABY GIRL STEWART was a 2003 Nebraska court decision. In September 2003, Omaha's Children's Hospital filed a petition for guardianship of a 4-month-old girl, who had been born premature, and authorization to perform surgery to correct a congenital heart defect, as well as administer blood transfusions required ed during the surgery. The baby's Jehovah's Witness Mother, Joyce Stewart, of Omaha, had refused to give her consent for the blood transfusions which would be necessary during the surgery. The petition indicated that surgery should be performed within 45 days.The petition was apparently granted, and the surgery was apparently successful, given that the infant was alive and well when Joyce Stewart died in February 2008. No husband/father was mentioned in either the 2003 nor 2008 media reports.
IN THE MATTER OF CONNER CASTILLO was a 2003 Texas Court decision.  In November 2003, Conner Castillo was born 15 weeks premature at Hillcrest Baptist Medical Center, to Shawn Castillo and Alicia Castillo, of Waco, Texas. Conner Castillo joined his siblings 21-month-old Aaron Castillo and 14-year-old Ryan Castillo. When doctors informed the Castillos that blood transfusions would be needed as part of the extensive treatments Conner needed simply to survived, the Castillos refused to give their consent, citing their beliefs as Jehovah's Witnesses.  Thereafter, the Texas Department of Protective and Regulatory Services obtained a court order allowing it to remove Conner Castillo from the custody of the parents, and authorization to consent to all necessary medical care, including transfusions.  Petition was granted. The Castillos later obtained permission from the court to move Conner to a Houston hospital that agreed to cease transfusions, but not until Hillcrest had first treated the newborn past the point of survival. However, it was later revealed that even the Houston hospital was forced to administer a transfusion to keep the newborn alive, along with multiple other procedures, including laser eye surgery.
In February 2001, Jehovah's Witnesses obtained as much media attention as possible for what was laughably referred to as a "bloodless surgery" performed on Aiden Michael Rush, who was the 7 month-old son of Jehovah's Witness Parents, Jason Rush and Heather Rush, of Tipton, Iowa. During the organ transplant surgery performed at Children's Hospital in Los Angeles, California, Aiden Rush received 20% of Vicki Rush's (paternal grandmother) liver.
Jehovah's Witnesses proudly declared the surgery to have been the first-ever "bloodless" liver transplant for an infant. Anyone who has ever prepared beef or pork liver, or any other animal organ meat for that matter, in their kitchen at home knows why any claim that an organ transplant is "bloodless" is ridiculous. Actually, one doesn't even have to be a cook to know that the JWs are fooling noone but themselves (an easy, constantly ongoing feat). It is common sense that any live (or even dead) organ, be it human or animal, contains the donor's blood, which means any organ transplant is also a transfusion of blood from the donor to the donee. The fact that people who have been convinced that the Bible prohibits blood transfusions can also be convinced at the same time that an organ transplant is also NOT effectively a blood transfusion says much about the reasoning ability of those same people.
IN THE MATTER OF OBADIAH SUTPHEN was a 2001 California court decision.  In February 2001, Obadiah Sutphen was born 11 weeks premature to African-American Antwanette Bennett, age 21, of Hemet California. The newborn needed a blood transfusion, but Antwanette Bennett refused to give her consent, citing her beliefs as a Jehovah's Witness. The hospital sought and obtained court-ordered guardianship and authorization to administer all needed medical care, including blood transfusions. Treatments lasted nearly two months, before Obadiah Sutphen could be released to go home at the end of April. However, two weeks later, Riverside County Child Protective Services began legal action to take all three children away from Antwanette Bennett and her husband, Christopher Sutphen. In August, Obadiah Sutphen, Alizah Malone, and Tatanaye Guillory were taken by Riverside County Child Protective Services. The children were returned to their parents in three weeks, after unknown action.  According to Antwanette Bennett, she was being persecuted because the family were Jehovah's Witnesses.  No doubt that was the cause!

CALIFORNIA v. ANTWANETTE DECOLE BENNETT was a California June 2013 arrest relating to alleged DUI and DUI priors.
IN THE MATTER OF EBONY BRABOY was a 2001 North Carolina court decision. Admitted to High Point Regional Hospital, in May 2001, four year-old African-American Ebony Braboy needed treatment for sickle-cell anemia. When her parents, Daniel Braboy and Nicola Braboy, were informed that Ebony would need one or more blood transfusions, they told hospital officials that they were Jehovah's Witnesses, and would not consent to transfusions. The Hospital sought and obtained a court order of guardianship, with authorization to administer medically required transfusions.
At some point, Daniel Braboy and Nicky Braboy attempted to REMOVE Ebony from High Point Regional Hospital. The Braboys were informed that it was hospital policy that parents were not allowed to REMOVE children in need of potentially life-saving treatment, not even on religious or moral grounds. The hospital eventually had to call High Point Police to stop Daniel Braboy and Nicola Braboy from ABDUCTING Ebony Braboy from the hospital. At a later point in this controversy, Ebony Braboy was transferred to Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, where the court-ordered emergency blood transfusion was administered. Fortunately, Ebony recovered and rejoined her two siblings and parents.
ON APPLICATION OF OKLAHOMA UNIVERSITY MEDICAL CENTER was a 2001 Oklahoma court decision. An unidentified infant born prematurely at Oklahoma City's Children's Hospital was placed in custody of the Department of Human Services.  The hospital petitioned a local judge for intervention after the newborn's Jehovah's Witnesses mother refused to consent to a life-saving blood transfusion for the infant. The boy - weighing 1 1/2 pounds after 25 weeks in the womb - was listed in critical condition, and was in "desperate need" of a transfusion. Allen Poston of Children's Hospital said that a newborn child does not have the ability to make decisions for itself, medically or otherwise. George Johnson of the Department of Human Services said that while in state custody, the child would receive a blood transfusion and other life-saving medical procedures that might be needed. After spending nearly two months in the hospital, it was estimated that he would still need another 2-3 months of treatments.
ON APPLICATION OF UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS FOR MEDICAL SCIENCES was a 2001 Arkansas court decision.  In March 2001, an unidentified Jehovah's Witness delivered her baby boy prematurely at University Hospital. When informed that her newborn would need a blood transfusion to survive, the Jehovah's Witness mother refused to give her consent.  The hospital sought and obtained guardianship and authorization to administer all needed medical care, including blood transfusions.  Outcome unknown.
IN THE MATTER OF MARTEZ LEFLORE was a 2001 Nebraska court decision.  In April 2001, African-American Anika L. LeFlore, age 31, took her 7-year-old son, Martez LeFlore, to University Hospital, in Omaha, Nebraska, after Martez began having trouble breathing. Doctors told Anika LeFlore that due to Martez's sickle cell anemia, his heart was enlarged, and his red-blood cell count was low. Martez LeFlore needed a blood transfusion. However, Anika LeFlore Patterson refused to give her consent, citing her beliefs as a Jehovah's Witness, and typically claiming that there were "alternative treatments" available other than blood transfusions. LeFlore was supported by an Elder with the Jehovah's Witness Fontenelle congregation, named Harlan Haupt (see UNITED STATES v. HARLAN L. HAUPT, which was a 1943 WW2 federal Draft Dodger prosecution), who was running around spewing the WatchTower nonsense about "alternative treatments", artificial blood, different surgical techniques, etc., as if the hospital and its doctors did not know what to so for the child's present condition. Omaha Police took Martez LeFlore into physical custody, and placed him in foster care. The hospital the petitioned the local court for authorization to administer all necessary medical care to Martez LeFlore, whose death was imminent. After receiving blood transfusions twice per day for a week or longer, LeFlore's condition was reported as improving.

IN THE MATTER OF BRIANNA BLAKE was a 2000 Oklahoma court decision. In December 2000, 5-year-old Brianna Blake was diagnosed with rhabdomyosarcoma at Tulsa's St. Francis Hospital. When informed that Brianna's treatment would require blood transfusions, Jehovah's Witness Parents Andre Blake, age 30s, and Sonya Lynn Blake, age 32, of Tulsa, Oklahoma, refused to give their consent. Matthew Suddock, a local member of the WatchTower Cult's Hospital Liaison Committee ran around spewing the routine nonsense against blood transfusions. The hospital sought and obtained an emergency court order authorizing the needed medical care. Outcome uncertain, but Brianna may have died in November 2001.
MERLIN HARTT and CATHERINE HARTT v. COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES was a 2000-3 California court case which involved a Jehovah's Witness couple named Merlin Hartt and Catherine Hartt. The Hartts sued Los Angeles County for negligence, fraud, and violating Health and Safety Code section 7051. After a September 1996 autopsy, the County donated a lung and cornea from the Hartts' deceased son Justin Hartt to an emphysema researcher at USC and a corneal transplant company without first seeking or getting the Hartts' permission. Justin Hartt, age 17, had been murdered after getting into a fight with gang members at an East L.A. party.
Described in media reports as "devout Jehovah's Witnesses", the Hartt's claimed that their WatchTower religion prohibited the donating of organs or tissue. Merlin Hartt stated: "That, to me, is sacrilegious. If they asked me I would have said 'no.' But no one ever asked." Also, "It just seems so gross to do something like that. Where do they draw the line? Apparently they did what they damn well felt like."
The trial court dismissed the lawsuit as a "non-suit" ruling that the 1996 versions of the controlling statutes expressly allowed the coroner to make the challenged donations without seeking or obtaining consent. The Hartt's appealed. The California appellate court affirmed the trial court decision. The Hartt's appeal contained numerous arguments, including one regarding the "blood card", which all JWs are required to carry. In regard to such, the appellate court stated:
"We reject the Hartts' suggestion that Justin's Jehovah's Witness identification card somehow put the County on notice that Justin or the Hartts objected to such post-autopsy donations under Health and Safety Code section 7152. The card referred exclusively to medical treatment for someone who was still alive. The card was silent regarding post-death disposition of remains. Moreover, the form Mr. Hartt signed at the coroner's office referred only generally to control of disposition of the remains. The form did not purport to waive or contradict statutes establishing the coroner's control over the body while it was within the coroner's legitimate control."
IN RE DOMINIQUE STARKS and IN RE TERRELL STARKS were related Michigan court cases which occurred sometime in the early 2000s and/or late 1990s. Terrell Starks and Dominique Starks were a brother and sister born approximately in 1986 and 1988 to African-American Jehovah's Witness Parents, Carl Starks and Valicia Starks, then residents of Michigan; now residents of Shively, Kentucky. Being of African-American heritage, both children suffered severe complications from sickle cell anemia, with Dominique Starks dying in 2005 at the age of seventeen. Per Carl Starks and Valicia Starks own statements to the news media, sometime in the early 2000s and/or late 1990s, Dominique Starks received two court-ordered blood transfusions, and Terrell Starks received one court-ordered blood transfusion"against the wishes of their parents, who are Jehovah's Witnesses."
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