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One of the multiple small "Second Adventist" Church of God sub-subgroups included the "CHURCH OF GOD -- ADVENTIST", which only decades later in the mid 1900s decided to drop "ADVENTIST" because of the negativity of that label. Other small Church of God groups included"restitutionists", or so-called "Age-To-Come" brethren, who have gone by five or more different names. Although the Age-To-Come" brethren also  are "second adventists", they historically also have rejected the "Second Adventists" label, despite the fact that such is categorical, not denominational. Most of these scattered COG sub-groups were/are counted by the "hundreds", and even the largest rarely ever amounted to more than a few thousand. Typically, they are "legends in their own minds".

Recently, there has been yet another ludicrous attempt to deny the FACT that Charles Taze Russell was a "Second Adventist" -- instead labeling Russell an "Age-To Comer" due to his ancillary "Age-To-Come" teachings. However, not only are these conspirators denying that CTR was a "Second Adventist", but they also are denying that CTR's "Second Adventist" friends, associates, and influencers were "Second Adventists", if any one of them had left so much as a hint of some ancillary religious belief. We will address some of such below.

Per their rationale, there is no such person as a "Second Adventist", since every "Second Adventist" had a long list of ancillary religious beliefs for which they also could be labeled. How and Why do you think that the labels "Seventh Day Adventists", "Advent Christians", and "Evangelical Adventists" even came about? Why were certain Second Adventists further labeled "timists", or more often, "time brethren" -- mainly by their own fellow Second Adventists?

Unlike the vast majority of his followers, WILLIAM MILLER was an orthodox Baptist, who believed in the literal burning of the earth, the immortality of the soul, the Trinity, eternal punishment, etc. When are some WatchTower historians going to demand that we stop labeling William Miller as an "Adventist", or a "Second Adventist"? Would they also prefer that William Miller no longer be labeled a "Millerite"?

A "Second Adventist" always has been someone whose core religious beliefs and teachings include a focus on the timing of the "Second Advent of Jesus Christ" -- whether it be "imminent", or a specified hour, day, year, decade, or century. Other than that core belief, "time brethren" can differ on any or all of their other beliefs, including those related to non-time aspects of the "Second Advent of Jesus Christ", including the continuously argued about "object and manner".

After all, in 1879, Charles Taze Russell did not name his new magazine, "Zion's Watch Tower and Herald of the Age to Come". No, Charles Taze Russell named his new magazine, "Zion's Watch Tower and Herald of Christ's Presence", because the very purpose of the founding of Russell's new religious magazine was to announce that -- unbeknownst to the world -- the "Second Advent of Jesus Christ" had already begun back in 1874. Charles Taze Russell fits the very definition of who and what is a "Second Adventist".

Now, if someone wishes to also label Russell an "Age-To-Come Second Adventist", that's fine. Russell also can be labeled an "Anti-Trinitarian Second Adventist", or an "Annihilationist Second Adventist", and even an "American Second Adventist", etc.

Bible students should particularly beware of "scholars with agendas". For instance, has anyone else ever wondered why so much effort has been made to DENY that early Charles Taze Russell influencers Benjamin Wilson (Emphatic Diaglott) and his friend Richard Corbaley were "Second Adventists", when Charles Taze Russell never acknowledged any particular relationship with either of those two men? Could it be that certain historical revisionists turned up proof that Russell did in fact have personal relationships with those two "Age-To-Comers", and that both men also turned out to be SECOND ADVENTISTS?"

In fact, on that special weekend when Charles Taze Russell first met with friends and co-religionists Benjamin Wilson and Richard Corbaley, both men's record as a "Second Adventist" was firmly established. In fact, Richard Corbaley even had been a "Millerite" during the 1840s. Richard Corbaley can be found preaching typical "Second Adventist" sermons from the 1860s until the 1890s, in multiple "Churches of God", including ones that Corbaley and his Second Adventist son were pastoring. As for Benjamin Wilson, who purchased a farm a few miles outside Sacramento only a few weeks after the 1872 news report was published, what more can one say -- "companion" of the Advent Christian Church's most prominent leader:

RELIGIOUS NOTICE. -- Eld R. Corbaley, will preach at the Advent Chapel in Healdsburg next Sunday at 11 A.M. and 3:30 P.M. Subject: "The Kingdom of God." The public are invited. -- RUSSIAN RIVER FLAG, November 9, 1871.

Religous -- Elder R. Corbaley, will preach at the Advent Chapel, in Healdsburg, next Sunday at 11 o'clock A.M. and 3:00 P.M. -- RUSSIAN RIVER FLAG, November 23, 1871.

"Elder Wilson, one of the companions of Elder Miles Grant (see photo on previous JWINFO), intends settling down permanently at Napa, and will establish a church in the Second Advent faith." -- SACRAMENTO DAILY UNION, January 11, 1872.

"RELIGIOUS DISCUSSION. -- Rev. Richard Corbaley and Rev. J. C. Clapp [LDS] propose to discuss Bible questions at the Advent Chapel in this place [Healdsburg: Corbaley's home as of May 1871] commencing next Tuesday evening, the 13th instant, and continuing a week or more. The first question is: 'Do the Scriptures teach that man is unconscious in death, having no conscious existence independent of physical organism?' Corbaley affirms. Clapp denies. The public are invited." -- RUSSIAN RIVER FLAG, February 8, 1872.

Religious. -- Elder R. Corbaley will preach at the Old Baptist Church in Healdsburg, next Sunday at 11 o'clock, A. M. Subject -- "The Second Coming of Christ." -- RUSSIAN RIVER FLAG, December 26, 1872.
Advent Christians meet every Sunday in Good Templars' Hall, Odd Fellows' Temple, corner of Ninth and K streets. Bible school meets at 3 p.m.; subject. "What is Conversion?" Prayer meeting at 7:30, and preaching at 7:45 p.m. by Elder Benjamin Wilson; subject, "The first and second advent of Christ; their relation to each other and to the world at large." Strangers are cordially invited to attend. -- Sacramento Daily Union, May 29, 1875.
Advent Christians meet every Sunday in Good Templars' Hall, Odd Fellows' Temple, corner of Ninth and K. Prayer meeting at 7:15. Preaching at 7:45 P.M., by Elder Benjamin Wilson. Subject, "The Fifth Universal Kingdom." All are cordially invited. -- Sacramento Daily Union, June 12, 1875.
Preaching next Sunday at Independence, at eleven o'clock, by Eld. R. Corbaley. Subject: "Prophecy". -- RUSSIAN RIVER FLAG, May 17, 1877.
Dry Creek School House, six miles northwest of Healdsburg. Preaching next Sunday at 11 A.M. by Eld. R. Corbaley. Subject: "The Eastern Question, from a Prophetic and Historical Stand-point". -- RUSSIAN RIVER FLAG, May 24, 1877.
Eld. R. Corbaley will deliver a discourse next Sunday afternoon at three o'clock, at the Baptist Church, on the Russo-Turkish war, from a prophetic and historic stand-point. A general invitation is extended to all to be present. -- RUSSIAN RIVER FLAG, June 28, 1877.
Dry-Creek School House - Preaching at the Dry-creek School house, six miles northwest of Healdsburg next Sunday at 11 o'clock A.M. The subject is a continuation of the "Eastern Question". Eld. R Corbaley -- RUSSIAN RIVER FLAG, July 19, 1877.
Baptist Church. Preaching at the Baptist Church in Healdsburg by Eld. R. Corbaley, next Sunday at three o'clock P.M. Subject -- "Continuation of the Turko-Russian War, from Prophesy and History." The public are invited. -- RUSSIAN RIVER FLAG, July 26, 1877.
"Eld. R. Corbaley returned to Healdsburg last Monday evening, after an absence of nearly four weeks. At Lockford, San Joaquin county, large meetings were held twelve days in succession, the Elder preaching 16 times; and here a church was organized. Near Woodland, Yolo county, large meetings were held 10 days, the Elder preaching 10 times, Elder Wilson filling balance of time. The Society he represents bears the name, "Church of God", and its members believe that immortality depends on an upright life, and that Christ will establish his kingdom upon the earth after his second coming; that this second advent is clearly foretold by the prophecies of Scripture. Though the Elder's labors were arduous he returns in improved health." -- RUSSIAN RIVER FLAG, August 30, 1877.
Next Sunday Eld. R. Corbaley will speak on "The Eastern Question", at the M. E. Church South. -- RUSSIAN RIVER FLAG, March 14, 1878.
Eld. Corbaley will preach at Independence School House next Sunday at the usual hour; subject, "Prophecy".  -- RUSSIAN RIVER FLAG, April 4, 1878.
Independence School-house. Preaching next Sunday at 11 o'clock A. M. by Eld. R. Corbaley. Subject: "The Eastern Question". All are invited. -- RUSSIAN RIVER FLAG, February 15, 1879.
Free Lecture. -- Elder R. Corbaley will give another lecture at the M. E. Church South in this city on Friday evening at 7:30 o'clock. Subject -- "The Restoration of the Kingdom to Israel'. Also, "The Grand Crisis in Human History, and the Indications of its near Approach", as shown in prophecy and history. -- RUSSIAN RIVER FLAG, April 3, 1879.
Ed. Flag: In your report of the discussion between Rev. B. F. Bowles, Universalist, and Elder R. Corbaley, Adventist, you have ... -- RUSSIAN RIVER FLAG, November 6, 1879.
Bible Lecture --- Elder R. Corbaley, of Healdsburg will preach at the Christian Chapel on Sutter St., this evening at 7 o'clock; also tomorrow at 3 1/2 p.m. and at 7 1/2 p. m. Subject "The Fifth Universal Kingdom of Earth." -- Stockton Mail, March 20, 1880.
Elder R. Corbaley will preach at the Baptist church in this city next Sunday at 3 o'clock p. m. Subject "The World's History Since 1798." -- RUSSIAN RIVER FLAG, February 22, 1883.
Elder R. Corbaley will preach at the Y.M.C.A. hall today at 11:00 a.m. Subject, "Prophecy and History; or Signs of the Times". -- The Morning Review, Spokane Falls, Washington Territory, July 3, and July 17, 1887.
"All the old settlers knew Richard Corbaley one of the founders of the Church of God, better known as the Second Day Advent Church, and one of the ablest and most eloquent preachers that denomination ever had." -- Obituary, THE PLYMOUTH TRIBUNE (Indiana), July 30, 1903.
Richard Corbaley was the great preacher of the Advent Church, or Church of God, was the founder of that church in this county, ... -- THE PLYMOUTH TRIBUNE (Indiana), April 30, 1908.
Note that only "some" ACC affiliated local churches used the name "Advent Christian Church". Others, due to the ancillary religious beliefs of their members (including "Age-To-Comers"), used "Christian Church", "Christian Advent Church", "Church of Christ", "Advent Christian Church of God", "Advent Church of God", "Church of God", "Advent Church", "Second Advent Church", "Second Advent Christian Church", "Church of God -- Adventist", and even, "The Church of God of Advent Christian Faith".

Apparently, some arrogant, name-calling researchers simply are not as thorough as they would like for their naive audience to believe. Every Scientist knows that when a researcher begins their research with an agenda, such as to discover something "monumental" about an otherwise boring topic, either consciously or subconsciously, that researcher will ignore evidence which disproves their "goal", and overblow evidence which promotes their goal.

***** For example, would knowing that B. W. Keith had completed multiple quarters, with honors, at the Dansville Seminary, prior to the start of the Civil War, add basic understanding to just about everything otherwise published about him by Russell, the WatchTower Society, Russellites, and others? Would knowing that B. W. Keith had been employed as a local School Principal a year or so after the war ended add even more credibility? Why begin a Keith biography AFTER his education? Even if, by accident, ... there were Keith's entry into the US Army as a NCO, Keith's later position as local DAR Chaplain, Keith's later official claim to being a "minister", Keith's multiple M-E affiliations, or later, Keith's "local only" public lectures (otherwise known as "sermons") that were advertised with handbills? At what point does a "scholar" begin to suspect that Keith was not simply a self-educated house painter, but rather was both intelligent and educated.

Keith is just a starting point. Less about the name and blood type of CTR's paperboy, and more about relevant matters. And, pleassssssse, stop validating Nelson Barbour's info re CTR's early years. CTR LIED to Barbour. CTR had been rejected by every significant Second Adventist in the United States prior to CTR's forced settling for the OBVIOUSLY MENTALLY ILL Nelson Barbour. Barbour was the only one willing to treat CTR as a peer, and such likely occurred only when CTR offered to pay for Barbour's trip to Philly. Money, money, money. Money.

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(Age-To-Come Church of God)
January 15, 1918


In the last lesson we learned that it is God's purpose to "send Jesus Christ" to the earth (Acts 3:20) to destroy all the kingdoms which now exist, and to set up a kingdom of his own (Dan. 2:44). We come now to consider the circumstances which will attend this prodigious political transformation. Will Christ creep upon the nations secretly and decimate "the powers that be" quietly, or will he come when wars are prevalent and troubles are rife? Instead of coming to redeem a saved world, according to the misconceptions of orthodox missionary propagandists, he comes in harmony with scriptural representations.

I. When Christ Returns to Establish the Kingdom of God the Earth Is Baptized in Judgment-fire (Isa. 66:15,16; Psa. 50:3-6; Mai. 4:1,2; Jer. 30:23,24; Psa. 21:9; 11:6; Jer. 25:33).

I. To Baptize the Earth in Judgment-fire. The change from the kingdoms of this world to the kingdom of our Lord and his Christ (Rev. 11:15) will be attended by "a time of trouble such as never was since there was a nation" (Dan. 12:1). ... To natural, political, and military troubles, without a parallel in history, which cause "men's hearts to fail them for fear, and for looking after those things which are coming on the earth" (Luke 21:26), will be added God's visible, judicial operations upon the nations. Natural and national perplexities will be supplemented by miraculous retributions. Vengeance of a most deadly kind overspreads the earth. Multitudes perish by war and pestilence; thousands more fall victims to the fire which will descend after the manner of the judgments upon Sodom and Gomorrah (Ezek. 39:6). ...

Revealed in "flaming fire", Christ comes to take vengeance upon sinners, and to destroy them, with an "everlasting destruction ..." (2 Thess. 1:8,9). ... "The slain of the Lord shall be at that day from one end of the earth even unto the other end of the earth" (Jer. 25:33). Out of this world-wide destruction comes this exhortation and warning: "Take heed to yourselves lest ... that day come upon you unawares. For as a snare shall it come on all them that dwell on the face of the whole earth. Watch ye therefore, and pray always, that ye may be accounted worthy to escape all these things that shall, come to pass, and to stand before the Son of Man" (Luke 21:34-36). ...

If God's own dear ones, after watching and praying without intermission, "escape" with the skin of their teeth (Job 19:20); if "the righteous scarcely be saved" (1 Pet. 4:1S), are not Russellites, Restorationists, and Universalists in a precarious business when they promise the world "escape" from this world-wide "snare"; and then having escaped, another chance for life after the Lord comes? ... Instead of "strengthening the wicked" to continue in his wickedness by a "promise of life" and a "fair chance" in the coming age; instead of giving the world "Russellite opiates" to put them to sleep in sin, and stereotyped arguments of Universalists to make them feel safe in iniquity, "the man of God" (2 Tim. 3:17) must proclaim the word of God ... "Before the fierce anger of the Lord come upon you, before the day of the Lord's anger come upon you. Seek ye the Lord, all ye meek of the earth, which have wrought His judgment; seek righteousness, seek meekness: it may be ye shall be hid in the day of the Lord's anger" (Zeph.2:2,3). ...

Russellism pledges to all men an unconditional and non-forfeitable "chance" in the coming age. This false and seductive system of religion promises all who have neither sought the Lord, righteousness, nor meekness, that they shall be "hid in the day of the Lord's anger", that they shall all "escape". It therefore promises more to the world unconditionally than God has promised to his own sons and daughters conditionally. This doctrine of a "fair chance" for all men, both dead and living, in the kingdom age. is the most audacious dogma that has boon invented since theological quacks began to temporize with the word of God.


III. In Mercy God Remembers Justice. Doubtless the reader now sees with a clear vision that the theory which burns up the globe, depopulates the earth, and translates the saints to heaven when Christ comes is an error which utterly subverts the word of God, since It declares that "the righteous shall never be removed: but the wicked shall not inhabit the earth" (Prov. 10:30). "The righteous shall, be recompensed in the earth" (Prov. 11:31). World-burning destroys entirely the kingdom of God, for it leaves no subjects to be governed by it. While these allegations are serious and true, to maintain equilibrium we must also recognize, on the other hand; that the out-flowings of God's mercy are limited like the shafts of his justice. God is just as well as merciful (Rom. 3:26).

At the expense of His justice, Russellism proposes to raise all men from the dead, and then give them a "chance" for eternal life as subjects in the kingdom of God. But the Savior has closed the door in the face of Russellism by these words: "All that are in the graves shall hear his voice, and shall come forth; they that have done good, unto the resurrection of life; and they that have done evil, unto the resurrection of damnation" (John 5:28). The subterfuge often employed by "fair chance" advocates, that God will be propitious to those who suffer "damnation", amounts to a parody upon the words of our Lord. To change "krisis", (damnation), to a trial or "chance" for life, is precluded by a contrast in the description of those who are raised: "They that have done evil", versus "they that have done good." Those that have "done good" include all the saints; those that have "done evil" embrace all the wicked ... What "damnation" means for one that has "done evil" it means for all. Therefore if damnation means a chance or trial, Judas and all other evil-doers are raised from the dead to be given a "chance" -- none are punished with condemnation! Again, "the resurrection of damnation" stands opposed to "the resurrection of life." What is the opposite of "life"? Not a trial, not a chance; but death!

The Savior says only two classes are raised from the dead -- "they that have done good" and "they that have done evil" -- and he says that "all" who are raised get one of two things, corresponding with what they have "done" in a previous life: they either procure "life" because they have "done good", or they receive "damnation" (death) because they have "done evil". Destiny at the resurrection depends upon what we do in our lifetime; what we sow now we shall reap then. There are only two classes and two destinies spoken of in the Scriptures in connection with the resurrection. Those who "have done evil" have sown to "the flesh" in Pauline phraseology; those who "have done good" have sown to "the spirit" according to the same authority; the "damnation" of which Christ speaks Paul calls "corruption", and the "life" which our Lord mentions is "life everlasting" in Paul's interpretation (Gal. 6:7,8). The opposing destinies of these two classes are called "everlasting life" and "shame and everlasting contempt" by the .prophet Daniel (Dan. 12:2).

These contrasts in the character and destiny of those who are raised from the dead leave not an atom of room, not a space thin as a hair line, for a third class who are said by "Larger Hope" apologists (George Storrs) to emerge from the grave to undergo curative discipline during the millennium. The agricultural law of "whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also reap" (Gal. 6:7), is entirely set aside by these errorists who teach that if we sow nothing we shall reap something. Something is reproduced from nothing! Constitutional passivity blesses all its helpless subjects with a resurrection which is followed by alluring and saving chances and opportunities. 

The Scriptures, on the contrary, are clear as a trumpet blast that there is no third class raised from the dead who have done neither good nor evil, who have sown neither to the flesh nor spirit; and whose destiny is neither "life" nor "damnation". No one is given a "chance" to be saved after being raised from the dead. The subjects of the kingdom are taken out of the living people at the coming of Christ. They are selected from the "neutrals" of the time. The word "remnant" means "few of many" (Jer. 42), and is often applied to the subjects of Christ's reign. Every time the Bible uses this word world-burners and Russellites are both rebuked. The first say there is not one man on the earth during the reign of Christ. There can be no "remnant" of nations where there are no nations. The [Russellites] say there are unnumbered hordes of the vile and ignorant raised from the dead and put on probation during the millennium. A "remnant" does not mean a horde. Neither have any use for the word "remnant." The reader will therefore perceive in the propositions hereto appended, and which are amplified and sustained by the word of God, a complete refutation of both the world-burning and "fair chance" theories -- two dogmas which have been invented by the flesh and made popular by the traditions of men.


(Age-To-Come Church of God)
May 18, 1915
Staff Editorial


The errors of Millennial Dawn books are so numerous and glaring that it seems unnecessary to point them out formally. We do not think it is possible for one who really wishes to know the truth as it is in Jesus to be misled by Russell's speculations. One who knows the Shepherd's voice instantly detects the voice of a "stranger" when the "pastor" opens his mouth. His heresies are so self-evident and so outrageous that they are easily recognized by our brotherhood. Just now we recall one claim made by "Pastor" Russell that is enough to discredit him utterly, if he were not discredited by many other things as well. The claim to which we refer is made in "The Watch Tower" of September 15, 1910, page 298, and it is this -- it is safer and better to study his books than the Bible itself! These are his words:

"If the six volumes of the Scripture Studies (referring to his own books) are practically the Bible topically arranged with Bible proofs, we might not improperly name the volumes 'The Bible in An Arranged Form',  that is to say, they are not merely comments on the Bible but they are practically the Bible itself, since there is no desire to build any doctrine or thought on any individual preference or on any individual wisdom, but to present the entire matter on the lines of the word of God. We therefore think it safe to follow this kind of reading, this kind of instruction, this kind of Bible study.

"Furthermore, not only do we find that people can not see The Divine Plan in studying the Bible by itself, but we see, also that if anyone lays the Scripture Studies aside, even after he has used them, after he has become familiar with them, if he has read them for ten years -- if he then lays them aside and ignores them, and goes to the Bible alone, though he has understood the Bible for ten years, our experience shows that within two years he goes into darkness. On the other hand, if he has merely read the Scripture Studies, with their references, and had not read a page of the Bible, as such, he would be in the light at the end of two
years, because he would have the light of the scriptures."

When any man makes any such claim as this it is unnecessary to read or listen to anything more that he has to say. By such a statement he proves himself to be beyond question a charlatan and religious impostor. This is simply the old Papal error in a new form. The Romish church took the Bible from the people and told them it was safer to study the comments of the saints and the priests on the Bible than to study the Bible itself. Russell is trying to do exactly the same thing, and by that fact is thoroughly discredited, and no intelligent and well-balanced person would care to follow his teaching any further. He is the pope all over again; a little more furtive, perhaps, and for that reason a little more dangerous.


(Age-To-Come Church of God)
February 10, 1915
Staff Editorial

Concerning the Resurrected Body of Christ

I am led to make these remarks by reading what the talented author of "Millennial Dawn" says about the resurrection of Christ, and to expose what he styles "the invisible phase of the kingdom". In Vol. 2, page 122, [Russell] says: "The Lord at his second coming shall assume the human form, as he did to his disciples after his resurrection, but such manifestations would be out of harmony with God's plan." ...

On page 126, [Russell] says [Jesus] had power to appear in a variety of ways, but no one of these bodies was his spiritual body, though the fact of his resurrection was proved by them. Just think of it: the resurrection of our Lord proved by bodies which had never died, and which had never been buried -- proved by bodies made to deceive them, made for the occasion!

[Russell] then adds that Christ was a spirit being really invisible to human sight. ... Just imagine Thomas handling a body that looked and felt like that of his Lord, who had been wounded for our transgressions, and told that it was He, and that He was really alive again, while all the time it was not the Lord's body, but a body made for the occasion, an assumed body! Did they ever discover the fraud, or was its discovery reserved as a laurel for this talented author of the Millennial Dawn?

On page 127, [Russell] says the human body of flesh and bone, and its clothing, which appeared suddenly while the doors were shut, did not go out of the door, but simply disappeared or dissolved into the same elements from which he had created them a few minutes before. ... And yet [Russell] adds, as if not quite so sure: "Doubtless [Jesus] was still with them invisibly." But what religious foolishness!

Again [Russell] says: "Some Christians absurdly conclude that the assumed bodies were his spirit body, and seem to disregard the statement of our Lord that this was not a spirit body." "Assumed bodies" -- where in all the book of God do we read about the "assumed bodies" of our Lord? Where do we read the statement of our Lord that this was not a spirit body that he appeared to them in? ...

This matter is now narrowed down to a question of knowledge or truth. [Russell] says this was not Christ himself, ... "Many suppose that our Lord's glorious body is the same body that was crucified. That is a great mistake, for if would show that it was not perfect, but scarred and disfigured!" ... Do the redeemed hosts agree with Russell in this when they sing "Thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood." ... Shall we believe [Russell] or the Redeemed of God?

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Celebrated tbe Feast of the Passover in Allegheny Yesterday

The Feast of the Passover was observed yesterday at a meeting of the Second Adventists held in their hall, at 101 Federal street, Allegheny. The ceremonies began at 10 o'clock in the morning and continued throughout the day, under the guidance of Rev. C. T. Russell. There were about 400 persons present. One of the delegates, or colporteurs, Mr. Webb, said his home was in Canada, and that he had traveled 1700 miles to be in attendance. There were others from New York, Tennessee, Ohio, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Michigan, and West Virginia. There was no proscribed form of ceremony, the attendants confining their addresses to experiences in spreading their faith and reporting on their work. This occupied the entire morning and a portion of the afternoon. At noon, a lunch was served in the hall, and again at 2 and 6 o'clock in the afternoon. Baptismal services were conducted by Mr. Russell at' 2 o'clock, when 10 men and 12 women professed the faith of sect and were received into the organization. In the evening the feast of the passover was celebrated after Rev. Russell had delivered a short address, and all present ate of unleavened bread, signifying the purity of the flesh, as by faith the spirit is pure. There was a choir in attendance and hymns were sung, and at 10 o'clock the ceremony came to a conclusion. These services are observed on Palm Sunday every year. -- Pittsburgh Dispatch, April 15, 1889, edited.


A new religion has arisen in Mars, [Pennsylvania], or perhaps we should say a new exponent of the old one. These people, called Russellites from their founder and leader met the past two Sabbaths in the Woodmen's Hall, Peters Block. They are Second Adventists, and repudiate eternal punishment. According to their tenets, the world is to be convulsed with revolt and anarchy for ten or fifteen years -- at the end of which the Millennium will begin. Agents have canvassed the town selling books in their interest. They have a small following there, probably ten or a dozen. -- Butler Citizen, August 4, 1904, edited. EDITOR: Butler County adjoins Allegheny County, and Mars, PA is only 15 miles north of Allegheny City. This was 1904. So much for the myth that CTR's expensive activities had made him a household name.



According to other "Russell" researchers obviously much more capable than ourselves, there was a third female "Director" of the WatchTower Society of Pennsylvania. Clara A. Taylor, an unmarried Bethelite secretary, age 20s, was appointed to the BOD in February 1900 as a replacement for either Maria Russell or Rose Ball. Clara A. Taylor was herself then replaced at the next election in January 1901. Clara A. Taylor had been a Bethelite since 1894.

Clara A.Taylor married a prominent Pittsburgh Russellite when Russell relocated WatchTower HQ to Brooklyn. Clara A. Taylor suffered a premature death. Widower remarried a local IBSA wife. They eventually opposed Rutherford's eventual purge of all things Russell.



September 1912


Secretary J. K. Dickirson of the Illinois State Fair, announces that definite contracts have been made for the last of the special attractions for the forthcoming State Fair, October 4-12. The most spectacular feature will be aviation. A fleet of air ships have been engaged for each day, excepting Sunday. There will be a French monoplane, the Nieuport, which is said to resemble a bat, an American monoplane, manufactured by the inventor, Johnson, of Terre Haute, a Curtisstype biplane, and the old fashioned hot air balloon, which will be operated by a woman.

Mule races and pony races have also been provided, and a Cuban woman will slide down an inclined plane in automobile and turn three saults.

There will be a three-team turnout of very black ponies with gold-mounted harness attached to a white-enameled truck. All these features, including aviation events will be given every forenoon, excepting October 4 and 5, when they will take place in the afternoon. The air ships will carry a mail bag with aerial mail out of the fairgrounds every day.

The last day, Saturday, October 12, will be automobile day, and enough cash and trophies are offered to provide sensational driving. Disbrow in a big Simplex, will be the great star, and the last event will be the climax of the Fair of 1912, when an automobile, a motorcycle, a biplane and both monoplanes, will race five miles around the race track.

Pastor Russell, the famous independent divine of Brooklyn and London Tabernacles will deliver a lecture on Sunday on "The Life Beyond the Grave".

The Illinois State Fair this year offers nearly $90,000 in cash prizes, and nearly every department shows an increase in the prize money list.

The new $125,000 sheep and swine pavilion will be completed in time for occupancy during the Fair, at least the contractors are under bond to finish it, and the great Dome building, badly disfigured by the cyclones of last winter, will have a brand new copper dome, in place of the mass of glass it has carried ever since it was built at the Chicago World's Fair. The lower fourteen feet will remain glass, the balance being copper.


In August 1913, the Tri-State Fair, in Memphis, Tennessee, contracted for "Pastor" Charles T. Russell to appear as the regional Fair's featured Opening Day attraction, but CTR was asked to withdraw his acceptance after the local Ministerial Association jerked a knot in the behinds of the Board of Directors.


The Wheeling Intelligencer

October 31, 1914



The World's Bible Conference was brought to a successful close ... with the address of Rev. William Edward Biederwolf on the subject of "Russellism," commonly known as "Millennial Dawnism." Rev. Biederwolf spoke, in part, as follows:

"It's a strange thing how easily people are led astray in religious matters. They'll have good sense in every other way, and yet they'll need a commission on sanity to sit on their case when it comes to religion. They'll allow themselves to be roped in, and to be duped, and buncoed, and bamboozled, and hoodwinked by any old sort of a theory as long as it has a few verses of Scripture in it to make it look like it's religion.

"Now, when a man comes tearing along as this man Russell has done, and puts a black eye on all the scholarships of the past, and pretends to handle Greek as though he were a student of the classics, and claims to be the only right interpreter of the Word of God, it is a natural thing to ask for the credentials of a man like this. The second coming of Christ is the pivotal point of his whole teaching. Around this all centers. He says that Christ's second coming took place in 1874, and that all true Christians then in their graves were raised in 1878. He says that Christ and these Christians are here now, but unseen, carrying on a special work, and that in October 1914, Christ will set up his millennial reign, and all present governments will then be overthrown.

"To begin with, the theory itself of the second coming, which he teaches, is all wrong in the first place, the day of the coming of Christ is unknown. But, Russell will not have it so. Now, let us just see where his false teaching concerning the second coming of Christ will lead us. If Christ returned in 1874 only as a spirit being, what became of the body of Christ after his resurrection, and before his return to this earth in 1874, and where is it now?

"Here is where Russell gets himself in a hopeless mess, and makes himself the laughing stock of all right and careful thinking people. He begins by declaring that Jesus Christ was the creation of God; that he was created as a spirit being just as the angels were.

"Next, Russellism declares that, 'Christ, at his incarnation, gave up his spirit being, and that while he walked on earth, he was nothing more than 'a perfect human being'."

All of the theories advanced by Russell in his six volumes on religion were mercifully flayed by the speaker in the course of his address, as compared with the ideas set forth in the teachings of the Bible on religion and in the second coming of Christ. The address as a whole attracted the attention of the audience and was well delivered.




The Adventists are holding a national meeting in camp near Springfield, Mass. Their belief is thus given by one of their elders: ... Jesus Christ is the great life giver. He is coming personally to this earth. When He comes He will raise the dead, judge the world, destroy the devil and all his works, renew the earth and give his children eternal life. Thus there will be an utter end of all evil, and a perfect triumph of truth, righteousness and love. ... the redeemed and purified earth is to be the home of the saints, ... -- THE CENTRE REPORTER, September 11, 1873.

"No intelligent Adventist believes that this world is ever to come to an end, but, as the Psalmist says, 'It is established that it shall not be moved.' ... It is a fact well known to every Bible scholar that in every instance where the phrase 'The end of the world' occurs, it should simply read, 'The end of the age', the root, translated 'world', being 'aeon', signifying 'age' or 'dispensation'." -- W. W. Robertson in 1889, Prominent Montreal attorney and Advent Christian Church Elder.


December 18, 1907
He Should Know Better (edited)

In an Old Theological Quarterly, number 76, part 1, January, 1907, is the report of a sermon by C. T. Russell, of Millennial Dawn fame, on "Earthquakes in Prophecy." As it is his own publication, the report is presumably correct. He says:
"It is true that our Second Adventist and Seventh-day Adventist friends have also been calling attention to the Scriptural predictions of great tribulations upon the world, now near at hand; but our message is still a very different one from theirs and used for a very different purpose. Their message is that the convulsions of nature that are now due are to result in a "wreck of matter and a crash of worlds" -- in the utter destruction of our race and the reduction of this earth to a mass of cinder. And they use their message as a club to threaten and to drive the wicked to seek the cover and protection of the Lord. Be it noticed how different is our reference to these calamities. We hold with the Scriptures that the 'earth abideth forever,' and that cold and heat, summer and winter, will continue as long as the earth abideth. We hold again with the Scriptures that God made not the earth in vain -- He made it to be inhabited. Eccl. 1:4; Gen. 8:22; Isa. 45:18."

In other words, "they" do not believe or teach the Bible; "we" do.

Now Mr. Russell knows or ought to know that Seventh-day Adventists teach that the "earth abideth forever," that God "created it not in vain," that "He formed it to be inhabited." Eccl. 1:4; Isa. 45:17, 18.

No Adventist, so far as we know, believes that the earth will be burned up, but purified by fire and fitted for the eternal home of the redeemed, when "the meek shall inherit the earth; and shall delight themselves in the abundance of peace."

Among the things that Seventh-day Adventists do not believe is Mr. Russell's unscriptural theories.

(NOTE the use of the broad term, "Adventist", in the next to last paragraph, but the Author's narrow"SDA" term in the last paragraph. Such indicates that the SDA author and his SDA editors considered Charles Taze Russell and his sect to also be "Adventists".)


Notice how in the two following newspaper articles how the "words to the WatchTower Song" gradually change over time as 1914 firsts gets closer, and then passes. In the three news articles at the start of this lesson, it was clear that all the negatives associated with the Millennium would be completed by its start in 1914. In this first article, the fool George Driscoll even drags the "burning of the world" red herring across the trail. So did CTR in the beginning of the second article, but we edited out most of that part so as to keep the better points in focus. ONCE AGAIN, inquirers should be asking themselves after every mini-lesson, Was CTR and his WatchTower Society imitating Jesus Christ, or Satan the Devil???

But It Will Be a Thousand Years On the Way

When their annual conference ended in the Brooklyn Academy of Music last night, the 1,500 believers in the early dawn of the millennium who follow the teachings of Pastor Charles T. Russell, of the Brooklyn Tabernacle, were firmer than ever in their conviction that, beginning in 1914, the world is to be converted into a veritable paradise. The change from existing conditions is not to be a "sudden one", according to the explanations made by the "Bible students" as Pastor Russell's followers speak of themselves. It is going to be gradual, and 1,000 years will elapse before absolute perfection will be attained. But promptly with the advent of the new year 1914, the change of influences from the unrighteous to the righteous will be apparent. G. C. Driscoll, one of the leaders of Pastor Russell's followers, gave assurance that the world will never come to an end,"but that an entirely different method of rehabilitation will be resorted to." The millennium, he explained, will start promptly with the ringing of the bells on New Year's, 1914. Elevating influences will begin to work overtime. Gradually and unconsciously our conditions will be bettered. -- Fargo Daily Republican, September 7, 1909.


September 21, 1916

Pastor Russell Predicts End of Present Civilization (edited)

"Hell will be popping" on earth following the great European war, according to Pastor Russell, ...

Pastor Russell, in his writings and lectures covering a period of thirty years (NO, 40 YEARS), predicted that the great European war would start (NO, STOP) in the autumn of 1914, and he stated so this morning. In an interview given to a Herald reporter, that following the war, the world will be destroyed by ... symbolic fire and brimstone, as, he says, is explained in the Bible.

"This great war now going on in Europe has weakened the power of kings," said Pastor Russell.

"The Bible shows that, following this great war, there will be serious revolutionary conditions. It symbolizes it as an earthquake and calls it the greatest that earth has ever experienced. Kings and other rulers will disappear and there will be a general smashing of present civilization in Europe. The Bible clearly points out that it will come here as well as there.

"The difficulties between capital and labor will assume tremendous proportions which will mean the destruction of all civilization. There are many good men who are Socialists ... but the Bible teaches that their efforts will result in anarchy, ...

"I do not think I am here merely to terrorise people about the bad things to come upon the country. My real message is the kingdom of God. The Bible has been promising the establishment of God's kingdom for a long while, but we have been looking in the wrong direction for It. We thought we could do it by sending missionaries to the heathen, but we have to learn that we are nearly all heathens. (EGOMANIAC!)

"According to the Bible (CITATION?), this great time of trouble is to teach mankind an everlasting lesson of their own insufficiency and hypocrisy, and then the people will be ready to hear the still, small voice of God, and be glad to respond to the regulation of his kingdom. (I THOUGHT THAT THE UNRESPONSIVE PEOPLE LIVING DURING THE TIME OF TROUBLE WOULD NEVER SEE THE KINGDOM OF GOD???)

"The Bible tells that all the governments of the world are going to fall; but many have been mistaken about the end of the world. The Bible says "The earth abideth forever' and that God formed it to be inhabited. The fire that is going to burn the world is the symbolic fire of anarchy, etc.

"After the war, the coalition of rulers with the churches will be made for mutual protection and support against socialistic influences. The Protestant and the Catholic churches will have to join and will be as one. ...

"What do you suppose will become of the 21,000.000 soldiers who will be turned loose upon the world at the end of the war? Where will they go and how will they be taken care of? Since the war started, new machinery has been invented to take the place of many laborers, and those machines can be run by women. Those men must find employment at high wages if they are going to help pay off the great taxes that are sure to come. The people are going to be burdened, and a revolution is as sure to follow the war as night succeeds day. It cannot be otherwise."



The following excerpt testifies to the ACA affiliation of G. W. Stetson right up to the time of Stetson's death. WHY? Because there is a BSCrazy researcher out there proclaiming that George Stetson was NOT a "Second Adventist" despite Stetson's devoting the last three decades and more of his life to the ACA. According to that BSC researcher, the following excerpt proves nothing, nor does 20+ years of ACA work. According to BSC researcher, George Stetson was simply fooling the hundreds of Advent Christians who traveled long distances from across the country to Stetson's funeral in October 1879, because they believed George Stetson to be one of the purest Christians they had ever known, and they wished to display their affection and respect. Well, George Stetson is not fooling BSC researcher:

The Advent Christian Church of Moreland, Wayne Co., O[hio], will hold an Annual Ordinance Meeting, beginning May 31st and continuing over Lord's day. Dr. G. W. Stetson of Edinboro, Pa., will be present to preach and officiate. All are invited. M. Beck, Pastor. -- The Wayne County Democrat, Wooster, Ohio, May 28, 1879.

AND, according to one of the Edinboro Advent Christian Church's own historians, the name of the Edinboro church did NOT switch from "Advent Christian Church" to "Church of God" during Stetson's tenure as pastor, but rather the opposite occurred. The Edinboro group had been named "Church of God" when founded by Jonas Wendell, and that same name was maintained when they later affiliated with the ACC around 1863. Then, during Stetson's tenure as Pastor, the name was changed first to "Second Advent Christian Church", and then sometime later, to "Advent Christian Church". This would explain why the name "Church of God" may have been initially used by the group organized by Jonas Wendell in Allegheny/Pitt. This was easy and obvious to anyone not attempting to build some BS theory about Pittsburgh's Advent Christians not actually being "Second Adventists". A Shakesperian quote comes to mind.


December 9, 1871
The Pittsburgh Commercial

PREACHING BY DR. STETSON AT QUINCY HALL, No 127 Lacock street, Allegheny, SUNDAY, December 10th at 10:30 A.M. and 7 P.M. Subjects -- Morning, "The Seven Pillars of Wisdom's House." Evening, "The Spirits in Prison and the Curse." All are respectfully invited. Seats free.


August 17, 1872
Pittsburgh Gazette

QUINCY HALL, 127 LACOCK STREET, Allegheny. Services EVERY SUNDAY at 10:30 A.M. and 7:30 P.M. Subject: (?) "The End Is Not Yet" and "When The End Will Be and What" (?) by DR. STETSON.


November 9, 1872
Pittsburgh Gazette

SECOND ADVENT CHRISTIAN Church. Services every Lord's Day at 10:30 A.M. and 7:30 P.M November 10th, preaching in the morning by E. MCCULLOCH. Evening, G. D. CLOWES' ORDINATION. Quincy Hall, 127 Lacock Street, eight doors from Federal street. Seats free.


... I am very sorry to know that Brother Clowes is so very low. Possibly before this time he has gone to his rest. But his works will follow after; and may we also be ready, for we know not when our change may come. We are all in usual health at present, and hope you are all well. Joined by Wife and Mabel in love to you all, I am your loving Father, J. L. RUSSELL. ...

On Jan'y 25th our dear Brother Clowes, with whom some of our readers were acquainted, having heard him preach the word of truth at various points near Pittsburgh, passed away full of triumphant faith and glorious hope. -- March 1889 ZWT.


November 25, 1876
The Pittsburgh Gazette

DR. G. W. STETSON will preach tomorrow in the hall over the German National Bank, corner of Wood and Sixth streets. Morning subject, Looking for Salvation, evening, The Testimony of the Three Witnesses.


As noted above, George Stetson pastored the Pitt/Allegheny Advent Christians from November 1871 until May 1873, when he moved back to Edinboro to pastor the Edinboro Advent Christian Church. When Stetson died in October 1879, he had chosen fellow Second Adventist Charles Taze Russell to officiate at his funeral, which was attended by more than 1600 locals and visiting Advent Christians and other Second Adventists. There is no doubt but that CTR knew and understood THOROUGHLY the Second Adventist beliefs of his mentor and friend, George Stetson, and how such was typical of the vast majority of Second Adventists.

The following 1870 LTTE testifies to George Stetson's beliefs, along with other Second Adventist beliefs, regarding the alleged "burning of the earth". In this instance, Stetson was NOT chastising a fellow theologian -- Stetson was confronting a SCIENTIST who believed in the literal burning of the earth. This LTTE is posted here not only to prove that most Second Adventists did not believe in the literal burning of the earth, BUT MORE IMPORTANTLY, to PROVE that Charles Taze Russell KNEW THE TRUTH, but chose to LIE about such in his repeated claims over the decades that he was NOT a "Second Adventist", because Second Adventists purportedly believed in the literal burning of the earth; and he did not. Note that this excerpt is heavily edited to simply prove the aforementioned. Other content is not included.

August 18, 1870 

FIRE! FIRE! FIRE! (edited)

Messrs. Editors : Your Independent of July 30th reached me Aug. 2d, containing an article on the "The End of the World," from the pen of Irwin H. Norton, of Leicester, Vt. His strictures on science, as claiming the destruction of the earth by electric flame proceeding from the sun, are of some weight, and merit due consideration. ... many who like Mr. Norton, hold, believe, and teach, that the material earth, on which we live, is at some fixed time, unknown to man, to be literally burned up with material fire. ... 

The greatest cause of surprise is that with such an incessant cry of fire, fire, fire, as has been kept up from the pulpit and press, ever since pulpits and presses came into use, there are so few, who really believe, that it will prove anything more than smoke after all. ... [Norton] says, "It is plain that this earth is be destroyed by fire," ... In conclusion, [Norton] says, "It will surely come," i. e. the end of the world, in a literal sense, as I understand him.

Now permit me to say to [Norton], ... if you think the Bible teaches the literal destruction of the planet earth on which we live, take that Bible and search diligently, comparing scripture with scripture, and you will find you are all mistaken.

From Genesis to Revelation you can find no such phrase as (Greek), literally the end of the world. It is a theory, INFERRED. Mr. N. quotes Mark 13:32 ... "But of that day and that hour no man maketh known; not even the angels who are in Heaven; neither the Son, but the Father." If Mr. N. will take a Greek Testament and consult Mat 24:3, he will discover that the disciples asked concerning the end of the age or dispensation. ... 1st John 3:8 says, "The purpose for which, the Son of God was manifested, was, that he might destroy the works of the devil." But the devil did not make this earth on which we live, and Jesus affirms (Mat. 25:34) that the earth from its foundation was a prepared kingdom for those blessed of his Father and they are to inherit it. The fires which are to consume the devilish works, that are in the world, are already kindled, and have been burning for eighteen hundred years, (Luke 12:49) and will continue, with more fervent heat and intense glow, to scintillate and send forth its brilliant coruscations, in each succeeding age, "to all the Generations of the age of the ages," (Eph. 3:21) "until the whole earth is filled with tbe glory of the Lord," (Num. 14:21, and "the lights of Israel shall be for a fire, and his Holy one for a flame." (Isa. 10:17) "For our God is a consuming fire." (Heb. 12:29.) "Forever, 0 Lord, thy word is settled in Heaven, thy faithfulness is unto all generations: Thou hast established the earth, and it abideth." (Ps. 119:89, 90) "One generation passeth away, and another generation cometh; but the earth abideth forever." (Eccl. 11:4)

Geo. W. Stetson. 
Olena, Huron Co., Ohio,  
August 3, 1870



I have been a Bible student since I first had my attention called to the second coming of our Lord, by Jonas Wendel,
a Second Advent Preacher, about 1869, who was then preaching the burning of the world as being due in 1873.
-- Charles Taze Russell in First July 1879 ZWT.



Gents: Believing it will advance the cause of God and Truth to publicly discuss the following questions, I hereby invite you to select one of your number to meet me and discuss the same at your earliest convenience:

1. Is man a compound being -- part mortal and part immortal?

2. Will all men live forever?

3. Will this earth be renewed and made the eternal home of the righteous?

4. Can we know our proximity to the coming of Christ aud the end of the world?

The last two questions I affirm; the first two I deny.

Yours for the Truth,

J. WENDELL. (1867)


Charles Taze Russell, in his three WATCH TOWER magazine mini-Bios, would have his readers believe that Jonas Wendell was only capable of lecturing in seedy sidestreet public Halls, and limited in his ability to addressing nothing more than the timing of the "Second Advent", and "the burning of the earth" thereat.

Well, the Wendell Family was high achieving, and included multiple Ministers, Attorneys, Bankers, politicians, and successful businessmen. However, it is true that Jonas Wendell was a "black sheep" in the successful Wendell family. Jonas Wendell was the son of a Methodist minister, and had been educated as such. Jonas Wendell also had been trained as an attorney by his brother, and later practiced in Edinboro privately as a small town attorney, and as an elected Justice of the Peace and Judge. Jonas Wendell, wife, and son also ran a mercantile store in Edinboro, and even "farmed" a little during his later years.

Jonas Wendell had fallen prey to the Millerite end-time message of 1843-44, and thus began a life of on-again, off-again Second Adventism, which repeated itself over again and over again, in the 1850s, in the 1860s, and finally, in the 1870s. Although Jonas Wendell had relocated his wife and son from White Plains, NY to Edinboro, Pennsylvania, sometime around 1848, where he built a home and a mercantile store, the Wendells maintained family relationships with Wendells and in-laws in eastern New York, and developed religious and other relationships in western New York, western Pennsylvania, and Ohio, as a result of sporadic evangelizing as a Second Adventist.
"At Edinboro there are quite a number of time [brethren] who seem to be very honest." -- SDA Evangelist, July 1855.
The following long and short news articles explain why there was a so-called "schism" amongst Allegheny/Pitt ACCs in 1871-72. Some folks believed Jonas Wendell blanket denial. Others did not. Like every sex scandal, even an entirely innocent accused comes out covered in feces (and, we are not saying that we believe Jonas Wendell). Those who did not believe Jonas Wendell's story likely did all they could do to put distance between themselves and Jonas Wendell and his supporters. 
Further Particulars In Relation to the Case.

The Erie Dispatch, in referring to the case of Rev. Jonas Wendell, of Edinboro, against whom grave charges have been preferred by a girl whom he had released from the House of Refuge, and the principal facts connected with which we published by telegraph, says:

Wendell has resided in Edinboro for some years, was at one time pastor of the church of the Second Advent in that town, and of late has wandered about the East and West, preaching a Sunday in a place, and occasionally holding revival meetings. He is represented to be a man of considerable intelligence, good address, a ready political speaker, and among the people of his religious faith, few men have earned a wider reputation for zealous and effective eloquence in arousing the lukewarm and indifferent, during periods of special religious interest. Mr. Wendell yet lacks ten years of the scriptural limit of a happy existence. He owns a house and has a family at Edinboro. He is quite well read in the law, and, it is said, was once admitted to the bar. A year or so since, a young girl residing in Edinboro, named Mary Terry, was placed by her friends in the House of Refuge at Pittsburgh. Mr. Wendell interested himself to secure her discharge, saying he would be responsible for her future good conduct. The authorities accordingly discharged her. She returned to Edinboro, and a short time since went from there to Rouseville to visit her relatives. On Friday, she came from Rouseville to Meadville and in the cars exhibited a letter from Mr. Wendell in which he promised to meet her in Meadville and accompany her thence to Pittsburgh. She made grave charges against Wendell, which immediately came to the knowledge of her relatives in Edinboro. Failing to find Wendell at Meadville, she took the cars for Sagertown, in company with a girl she had met at Meadville. Meanwhile her statements came to the knowledge of her friends at Edinboro, and a warrant was issued for Wendell's arrest. He was arrested and held for a hearing. The girl, after a tedious search, was discovered at Mosiertown, Crawford county, and brought to Edinboro on Saturday night last, and there held to appear as a witness. She is quite pretty, and not more than sixteen or seventeen years of age. At one time, she was regarded as somewhat simple-minded. -- The Pittsburgh Commercial, June 3, 1871.

Miss Mary Terry, of Edinboro, the young lady whose name was unpleasantly associated with the name of theRev. Jonas Wendell, a Second Adventist clergyman of that town, has appeared before a Justice of the Peace. She makes affidavit that the charges made against Mr. Wendell are entirely without foundation. -- The Erie Dispatch, May 31, 1871.

The following newspaper articles, nearly all from The Pittsburgh Gazette and The Pittsburgh Weekly Gazette, in 1869, 1870, and in 1871, attest that Jonas Wendell was no self-educated "one trick pony", and given all the above, Charles Taze Russell knew Wendell's resume and Wendell's true abilities when CTR artfully assassinated the character of Jonas Wendell in the pages of ZWT, long after Jonas Wendell was dead:


January 18, 1869
The Pittsburgh Commercial

ELDER J. WENDELL will apply the prophecies concerning the Second Advent of Christ and illustrate them on a large chart, tonight, in Wilkins Hall, over the Mayor's office, on Fourth avenue. Seats free and no collection.


January 23, 1869

THE LORD WILLING, ED J. Wendell will preach in Wilkin's Hall, over the Mayor's office, on Fourth street, Lord's Day, January 24th, at 10 1/2 o'clock A.M., and at 3 and 7 o'clock P.M. 1st. The certainty of Christ's coming. 2d. The necessity of beast's coming. 3d. The time of Christ's coming. Come and hear. "He that judgeth a matter before he heareth it is not wise." JOHN A. BEST.


January 30, 1869

THE LORD WILLING, Elder J. Wendell will preach in Wilkins Hall, over the Mayor's office, on Fourth street, on Lord's Day, January 31st, at 10 1/2 o'clock A.M., at 3 and 7 o'clock P.M. Subjects: 1st. Destiny of the Earth. 2nd. The Reward of the Righteous. 3rd. Doom of the Wicked. An opportunity for asking questions on the subjects will be given.


February 6, 1869

THE LORD WILLING, Elder J. Wendell will preach in Lafayette Hall, Wood Street, TOMORROW at 10:30 A.M., and at 3 and 7 P.M. Subjects: 1st. New Birth. 2nd. Rich Man and Lazarus. 3rd. Prophecy. An opportunity for asking questions on the subjects will be allowed.

February 13, 1869

ELDER J. WENDELL will preach in QUINCY HALL, or SOLDIER'S LEAGUE ROOM, Leacock street, near Federal, Allegheny City, TOMORROW, at 10 1/2 A.M. and 3 1/2 and 7 1/2 P.M. SUBJECTS: 1st. True Worship of God. 2d. Evidence of Discipleship. 3d. The Christian's Hope. Seats free and no collection.


February 20, 1869

THE CHURCH WAITING for the Coming of Jesus and the promises made to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and whose hope is only in the Resurrection, will have ELDER J. WENDELL to declare the word unto them TOMORROW, in QUINCY HALL, Lacock street, Allegheny City, at 10:30 A.M., and 3:30 and 7:30 P. M., and some evenings during the week. The public are invited. Seats free.

March 20, 1869

ELDER J. WENDELL WILL be present at QUINCY HALL, Lacock street, Allegheny, TOMORROW at 10:30 A.M. and 3:30 and 7:00 P.M., to proclaim the word to those waiting the coming of Jesus and the resurrection of the dead. Subject in the morning, **Eighth of Daniel and our near proximity to the end.** Meeting on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Friday evenings.


May 12, 1869

The Immortality of the Soul.

To the Editor of the Gazette: -- Sir: I am informed by a friend that a gentleman claiming to be a minister of religion, known as Elder Wendel, addressed, some time ago, the Christian public in an article inserted in the newspapers, in which he unblushingly denied, strange as it may seem, the fundamental principle of all true rellgion -- the immortality of the soul -- and that at the same time he invited any minister of the Gospel holding an opposite view to a discussion of the subject with him. I did not see the article in question, but am told that a minister, after consenting to discuss with Mr. Wendel, declined for reasons not stated. Now. lest the cause of truth should suffer at the hands of those who are commanded to "contend earnestly for the faith which Was once delivered to the saints," I, as a minister of the Gospel, believing implicitly in the teaching of the Word of God, and, therefore, in the immortality of the soul, take the liberty of respectfully inviting Mr. Wendel to lay his views on this subject before the public in the columns of the GAZETTE, (with your kind permission,) or any other of the Pittsburgh papers he may elect, when I shall deem it an incumbent duty -- although not fond of polemical disputation -- to present in reply what I consider to be the teaching of inspiration on this all-important subject. In the meantime, permit me, sir, to subscribe myself your obedient servant. in Christ,



May 13, 1869

The Immortality of the Soul.(?)

MESSRS. EDITORS GAZETTE -- Allow me to inform "Anima", through your columns, that Elder Wendell is now at home in Erie county, but does deny that the immortality of the soul is taught in the Scriptures of Truth, and believes that doctrine to be the mother of errors in the Church of Christ, and the basis of all false religions, and originated among the heathen philosophers. If any minister or a plurality of them, of approved character, in whom the public have confidence, or any laymen having the above qualifications, will affirm it in public oral discussion, he will return here and deny. Many of our citizens have expressed a desire to hear a discussion on that subject, believing it would be productive of good, and I hope "Anima" will lay aside his mask and stand forth boldly like Paul, who was "set for the defense of the Gospel". -- Phil 1:17.

I will also state Elder Miles Grant, editor of the Crisis, of Boston, has a standing challenge to those who believe and teach this doctrine, and is ready at any time to deny it. To increase an interest in this subject, I will donate $20 ($400.00 in 2021 dollars) for every passage of Scripture where the immortality of the soul is mentioned, to any Church or Sunday School the finder may elect.

John A. Best,**
Fifth avenue and Tunnel street.

** Whichever one of the three or more local "John Best" was this Pittsburgh Second Adventist leader, Jonas Wendell was not the first visiting Second Adventist evangelist whom local SA leader "John A. Best" had managed during the 1860s. By the 1890s, John A. Best had become a prosperous businessman who shared a couple NFP BODs with Henry Conley. John Best and his wife also became close friends of Henry Conley and his wife. After Henry Conley died in 1897, John Best stepped into Conley's shoes as head of both the local and state CMA.

John A. Best's LTTE is important in what it tells us about Jonas Wendell and Wendell's service of the Allegheny Advent Christian Church, from Edinboro, plus what it tells us about the quality of the local membership. Editor Miles Grant can be seen in the National Conference photograph linked on JWINFO Page 1.


February 12, 1870

THE LORD WILLING, a series of meetings will be commenced at QUINCY HALL, Lacock street, one square below Federal, Allegheny City, on LORD'S DAY, on February 13, 1870, at 10:30 A.M., 3 and 7:30 P.M., and continue during the week. ELDER J. WENDELL will be present to expound the prophecies concerning the signs of the times, the delusion of spiritualism, the coming Struggle among the Nations of the Earth, the second advent of Jesus, his Subjugating the kingdoms and Republics of this world, his everlasting reign upon the earth; the Destiny and Destruction of the wicked, and exhort to repentance for God hath appointed a day to judge the world. All are earnestly invited to come and take part, those who are ready for the coming day and those who are without God and without hope; those who warn men to flee from the coming doom, and those who are exhorted.


February 19, 1870

THE LORD WILLING, ELDER J. WENDELL will preach in QUINCY HALL, Lacock street, Allegheny, at 10:30 A.M. and 3 and 7:00 P.M., on Sunday, and on TUESDAY, WEDNESDAY, and THURSDAY EVENINGS during the week, expounding the Prophesies concerning the soon coming and second appearance of Jesus. An opportunity for asking questions will be given. You are earnestly invited.


February 23, 1870

The doctrine of the Annihilation of the Wicked, according to the Methodist Home Journal, is taking root and spreading among thinking men, both in and out of that Church, and both in and out of its ministry, with a growth that is obvious and threatening. It is asserted that the question whether the Scriptures promise perpetual existence to any but the good must soon have a rehearing in that denomination.

We have heard many in this city express a desire to hear a discussion of this question. Elder Wendell, who is now preaching in Quincy Hall, Allegheny, alleges that "perpetual existence is promised only to the righteous," and expresses his willingness to discuss the question with any man of acknowledged ability and reputation. The question is one of vast magnitude, and will not some one of God's watchmen meet Elder Wendell and both, in the spirit of meekness, give us the argument and Scripture, pro and con, on this all important subject. The above article, taken from the Albany Evening Journal, attests that the question must be met with something better than silent contempt, or the naked asservations of erring man.

EDITOR'S NOTE: We don't know what either of the two aforementioned news articles stated, but Jonas Wendell did debate a New York Pastor- School Principal in Summer 1869. Jonas Wendell apparently had a reputation with the media for eagerly entering debates -- of which there were many. We have found formal debates as far back as 1859, and suspect that there were many prior to that date.


March 8, 1870

Challenge Accepted

MESSRS. EDITORS: Some ten days since there appeared in your columns a communication referring to Elder J. Wendell and the preaching of his peculiar doctrines in Quincy Hall, Allegheny city, and that he had challenged or invited the clergy of Allegheny county to meet him in discussion of the same. As none other of our clergy seem inclined to accept the invitatlon, I propose to do so, if we can agree upon terms of debate.

I propose the following as a suitable question:

Does the Bible teach the doctrine of the destruction of a part of mankind?
Does the Bible teach the doctrine of the immortality, holiness and happiness of all mankind?

This question, it appears to me, will cover the main point of difference between us, and allow each party an affirmative and negative.

If this offer shall be accepted the details of the debate can be arranged by the parties.



March 9, 1870

MESSRS. EDITORS GAZETTE: I see by today's Gazette that D. Bacon has intimated his purpose of meeting me in a public discussion of the points at issue between us. This frank manly course in favor of full and free discussion, is not only in good keeping with the spirit of the age, and the genius of our institutions, but indicative of a becoming confidence and sincerity in the cause he advocates. I have accepted the questions as proposed by him and have arranged to commence the discussion on Monday evening, March 14th, at 7 1/2 o'clock, at Quincy Hall. J. WENDELL. March 8,1870.


April 30, 1870

THE CHURCH WORSHIPING IN QUINCY HALL, 127 Lacock street, Allegheny, "Looking for the Blessed Hope and Glorious Appearing of the Great God and the Lord Jesus Christ." meet at 10:30 A.M. and 3 and 7:30 P.M., TOMORROW (SUNDAY.) Elder HIMES, of Michigan, will "preach the word." Elder WENDELL is also expected. Come and hear, we will try and do you good.

*** "Elder Himes" is Joshua V. Himes, who in 1870 was one of -- if not "the" -- "leaders" of the Advent Christian Church. This is just one more piece of evidence that the "Allegheny Church of God" was affiliated with the ACC, and thus was not some BS "Age-To-Come" affiliate. Joshua Himes probably even should be considered the main proponent of the 1843-44 Movement given that William Miller gradually became mostly a figurehead. The significance of Joshua Himes' visit to Pittsburgh in 1870 should not be underestimated. Every Second Adventist in the area would have wanted to hear and hopefully meet Joshua Himes, including the Russell and Conley families, who likely were regular attendees anyway. See Himes and Wendell together at 1868 national ACC Convention in photo linked on JWINFO Page 1.

Other ACC "notables" known to have visited the Allegheny ACC congregation during this time period included ACC evangelist Elder Eusebius McCulloch and ACC administrator Elder Joseph D. Brown. All of these ACC insiders had worked with and knew everyone else up and down the relatively small ACC chain of command, and they undoubtedly shared "war stories" about such as they smoozed with the locals in every congregation that they visited. That, plus his subscriptions to every ACC and other brands of Adventism magazines, reveals CTR's later assertions that he was unfamiliar with ACC personnel during the early 1870s to be nothing but typical CTR horsesh!t. Of course, there is also CTR's never-disclosed travel tour or tours of Second Adventist notables.


May 14, 1870

CHRISTIANS WHO WORSHIP in QUINCY HALL, 127 Federal street, Allegheny, every LORD'S DAY at 10:00 A.M. and 3 and 7:30 P.M., serving the living and true God and waiting His Son fron heaven, will have ELDER WENDELL present TOMORROW to "Preach the Word". Come and we will try and do you good.


May 21, 1870

CHRISTIANS LOOKING FOR that blessed hope, the glorious appearing of the Great God and the Lord Jesus, will worship in QUINCY HALL, 127 Lacock street, Allegheny. ELDER WENDELL will preach TOMORROW at 10:30 A.M. and 3 and 7:30 P.M., Come and we will try and do you good.


October 22, 1870

ELDER WENDELL WILL BE present tomorrow at Quincy Hall, 127 Lacock street, Allegheny, and preach at 10:30 A.M. and 3 and 7 P.M. Xxxxxxx xxxxx second coming of Christ and those who would xxxxx the nature of man, the destiny of the world, the coming glory and the doom of the wicked. All are earnestly invited to come.


February 18, 1871

There will be preaching tomorrow, February 19th, at 10:30 A.M., and 2 o'clock P.M. by Elder J. Wendell. Lecture in the evening at 7 o'clock on the 25th of Matthew, by Dr. Barbour. Come and hear at Flour City Hall. -- Democrat and Chronicle, Rochester, New York.


April 22, 1871

ELDER J. WENDELL WILL preach in QUINCY HALL, No. 127 Lacock street, Allegheny, on SUNDAY, 23rd, at 10 1/2 o'clock A.M. and at 7 1/2 o'clock P. M. -- Subject "The purpose of God in creating the world: His plan for its redemption from the curse; and the time for its accomplishment."


August 17, 1872

QUINCY HALL, 127 LACOCK STREET, Allegheny. Services EVERY SUNDAY at 10:30 A.M. and 7:30 P.M. Subject: (?) "The End Is Not Yet" and "When The End Will Be and What" (?) by DR. STETSON.


Fenn and Wendell, Advent preachers, have pitched their tent at East Randolph. -- The Buffalo Express, July 7, 1870.

Second Advent Preaching: Eld. J. Wendell will preach in Beaverwyck Hall ... Subject, "Judgment on the Papal Power." -- The Albany Express, July 1872.

TENT MEETING -- The Second Adventists are holding a series of meetings in this city, under the auspices of the New York Advent Christian Conference ... under the direction of Elders Jonas Wendell and B. P. Stevens ... Tonight the subject of the lecture will be "The Signs of the First (?) Advent, and their literal fulfillment." -- The Syracuse Daily Journal, September 27, 1872.



Here is a heavily edited excerpt from the June 1, 1916 issue of the WATCH TOWER magazine in which Charles Taze Russell -- for the third time -- provides his version of how he first came to hear of and eventually meet Nelson Barbour:
... It was about January of 1876 that my attention was especially drawn to the subject of prophetic time, as it refers to these doctrines and hopes. It came about in this way: I received a paper called, The Herald of the Morning, sent by its Editor, Mr. N. H. Barbour. ... I at once wrote to Mr. Barbour, informing him of my harmony on other points and desiring to know particularly why, and upon what Scriptural evidence, he held that Christ's presence and the Harvest of the Gospel Age dated from autumn of 1874. The answer showed that my surmise had been correct; namely, that the time arguments, chronology, etc., were same as used by Second Adventists in 1873. ...

So I paid Mr. Barbour's expenses to come to see me at Philadelphia (where I had business engagements during the summer of 1876), to show me fully and Scripturally, if he could, that the prophecies indicated 1874 as the date at which the Lord's presence and the Harvest began. He came; and the evidence satisfied me. ...

I determined to curtail my business cares and give my time as well as my means to the great Harvest work. Accordingly, I sent Mr. Barbour back to his home with money and instructions to prepare in concise book form the Good Tidings so far as then understood, including the time features, while I closed out my Philadelphia business preparatory to engaging in the work, traveling and preaching.

The little book of 196 pages, thus prepared, was entitled, The Three Worlds, ... From the sale of this book and from my purse our traveling expenses were met. After a time I conceived the idea of adding another Harvest laborer, and sent for Mr. Paton, who promptly responded and whose traveling expenses were met in the same way. ...


Elder Paton, of The Herald of the Morning, will preach tomorrow on, "The Gospel Harvest and Millennial Dawn" at 10:30, 2:30 and 7:30 at hall, corner Sixth and Woods streets. -- THE PITTSBURGH COMMERCIAL, March 25, 1876.

ST. GEORGE'S HALL, THIRTEENTH and ARCH. October 22, by Dr. N. H. BARBOUR, at 10:30 A. M. and 3 and 7:30 P. M. Subjects: Morning, "The Three Worlds," afternoon, "The Return of Israel and End of the Gospel Age due in 1878." The Jews specially invited. Evening, "Perilous Times, No Hire for Man nor Hire for Beast." -- Zach. viii. 10. -- THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER, October 21, 1876.

At St. George's Hall, Thirteenth and Arch streets, tomorrow, at 10:30 A. M., 3 and 7:30 P. M., addresses will be made by Dr. N. H. Barbour. His subject in the morning will be "The Three Worlds." -- THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER, October 21, 1876.

Religious services are to be held in St. George's Hall tomorrow morning. Dr. N. H. Barbour, of New York, officiating. The subject of his sermon is to be "The Religious Signs of the Times." -- THE PHILADELPHIA TIMES, October 28, 1876.



Multiple Nelson Barbour researchers have either intentionally or negligently misinterpreted the evidence to claim that the 1873-74 Movement was composed of either two separate groups (Barbour and the Mass/RI), or three separate groups (Barbour, Mass/RI, and Wendell). Both of these claims are ridiculous. It is as such historians don't understand the obstacles of that time period. As shown below, Barbour lived in Boston, and initially preached in Massachusetts and Rhode Island, and probably NYC and elsewhere (I believe I've seen NJ, altho can't now find it.)

Once Barbour saw that his Mass/RI converts could take care of New England, Barbour looked west -- Rochester being a recent home. There, Barbour soon met Jonas Wendell, who could himself handle western PA, Ohio, and southwest NY state. Barbour concentrated on the extremely fertile area around and east of Rochester. The time was short. Barbour even made one extended trip to Chicago, but Chicago was Thurman territory.

Researchers have made far too much out of the Terry Island gathering, which was overblown by the media. Were believers in that area suppose to travel to Rochester? Besides, only about 100-150 folks were at Terry Island. The "lingerers" only amounted to a small handful. They simply were a small part of the Mass/RI subgroup. Folks, it was only ONE MOVEMENT.


RICHMOND HALL ... Pastor, N. H. Barbour. -- Preaching tomorrow morning ..., afternoon ..., evening ... . Subject: Prophecy, showing that the Lord will come in 1873. -- The Morning Herald, Providence, Rhode Island, October 14 and 21, 1871 issues.

RICHMOND HALL, 491 High Street. -- Dr. N. H. Barbour will preach at the usual hours. Subject -- Prophecy, showing that the Lord will come in 1873. Seats Free. -- The Providence Evening Press, October 14, 1871.

RICHMOND HALL, 491 High Street. -- Dr. N. H. Barbour will preach at the usual hours of worship, Sunday, 22nd instant, forenoon and afternoon. Dr. Barbour will also hold a series of lectures in Lester's Hall (meeting place of Providence's Advent Christian Church), ... commencing Monday night, 23nd instant, ... and continue every evening through the week. Subjects -- Chronology of the six thousand years, showing their terminus in 1873, with numerous lines of prophecies, ending at the same time. -- The Morning Star, Providence, Rhode Island, October 21, 1871.

SECOND ADVENT CHURCH, Washington Hall. -- Dr. N. H. Barbour of Boston, will preach at 3 and 7:15 P.M., showing by chronology and prophecy, the immediate coming of the Lord. -- Cambridge Chronicle (Massachusetts), February 24, 1872.

SECOND ADVENT CHURCH ... Dr. N. H. Barbour of Boston, will preach [three times Sunday]. Subject, Prophecy, relating to the immediate personal coming of Jesus. -- Cambridge Chronicle (Massachusetts), August 26, 1872.

"My attention recently has been arrested by reading the "Evidences For the Coming of the Lord in 1873," as presented by N. H. Barbour, in the World's Crisis (ACC magazine), of Oct. 16 and 23. And while reading the many views advocated by the above named paper, I have been enabled to more fully realize the division and lack of unity existing, even among those who profess to be looking for the speedy return of their Lord and Master; and it has also occurred to my mind that it is not so strange a thing after all that the masses are disgusted with everything going under the name of Adventism. ... ." -- LTTE in SDA's The Advent Review, November 12, 1872.


Chicago Daily Tribune
April 6, 13, 21, 1873

Frank Burr (pastored Dansville NY during early 1860s) ... Elder N. H. Barbour, of Boston, ... in Advent Christian Chapel.

Dr. Barbour of Boston, will lecture this morning and evening at the Advent Chapel on the prophecies and evidences of the coming of the Lord this present year, 1873.

The Rev. Dr. Barbour, of Boston, Mass., will preach at Aiken's Theatre ... subjects ... "Millennium About to Dawn", ... "A Change of Dispensation Is At Hand" ...


July 27 - August 3, 1873
Dr. Barbour of Boston and others.
[Partial extract of same "display ad" ran multiple times in the Buffalo Daily Courier.]

THE TENT MEETING. The Second Advent tent meeting, which opened at this village on Thursday evening last is still in progress and will continue until Sunday evening. On Sunday there will be three services -- at 10 A.M., 3 and 7.30 P.M. The meeting is conducted by Eld. Barbour, assisted by other preachers. We understand that they hold that the existing order of things will be brought to an end on the ensuing 14th of October. -- The Brockport Republic, August 14, 1873.


The people hereabouts are beginning to get wonderfully good in view of the statement that the world is going to end up its career this year. So say some Second Adventists who are holding public meetings here this week. N. H. Barbour of Boston, and another named James McCagg, of Warsaw, NY are the leading speakers. They are positive in their predictions and are sure there can be no mistake this time. -- Buffalo Daily Courier, August 26, 1873.


The Niagara Falls Gazette
August 27, 1873

That peculiar body of religious fanatics known as "Second Adventists" have been pertinaciously expecting and seriously prophesying the final winding up of the present economy in things terrestrial during the past two score years and over. Several specific dates have been confidently announced by them as the appointed time for the occurrence of the serious and momentous catastrophe; and although their dismal predictions have so far proved but the vaporings of crazy imaginations, they persistently continue from time to time, as the planet obstinately rolls on into unpredictcd years, to appoint new eras for the realization of their fond hopes and oft refuted prophecies.

There is a regularly organized church of this persuasion in the city of Lockport, the members of which meet together upon each recurring Sabbath to unite in religious services. They take the Bible for their creed and allow each individual to interpret the sacred writings according to their own convictions. They are represented as quiet, law-abiding citizens and as deserving the respect of the community in which they live.

A Dr. Barbour, of Boston, and a gentleman named McCagg, of Warsaw, have recently inaugurated a series of open-air (tent) meetings in the city. Devotional exercises common to all christian denominations are observed at these meeting. The sermons, which are unique in their way, are principally devoted to the explanation and application of biblical prophesies. We believe the Lockport Adventists are not in full accord with all the theories advanced by those having the meetings in charge, but all parties are united in predicting an early coming of the "last day" -- we are not positively informed as to the particular date upon which they again hang their crumbling reputation as proficients in prophetical exegesis. The meetings are a success so far as attendance is concerned, large numbers of people going to listen to the crude efforts of the speakers to unfold biblical prophesies, through motives of pure curiosity.


GREAT TENT MEETING AT ROCHESTER ... The fulfillment of prophecy and signs of a new dispensation at hand, by Dr. N. H. Barbour, of Boston. Meetings to continue over two Sabbaths and through intervening week. ... -- Rochester Union and Advertiser, September 27, 1873.


The Dansville Advertiser
October 16, 1873


Elder Barbour of Boston delivered in Dansville last week and on Sunday several lectures on the second coming of Christ, in which he undertook to prove that prophecy pointed to the year 1873 as the time for the final resurrection and judgment. This he figured out in two ways, explaining his reasoning by means of mathematical diagrams. On Sunday afternoon, he labored to show that the time from the death of Jacob, or the commencement of the dispensation of the twelve tribes, to the first coming of Christ, (which coming, he claimed, was at the beginning of Christ's ministry,) was just 1843 years; and as Jeremiah declared, that after this period had been doubled, the second coming should take place, 1843 years from the first coming, or 1873 years from Christ's birth, was the year for the second coming.

Elder Barbour is a pleasing speaker. He seems to be entirely convinced tbat his conclusions are correct, and that a proper interpretation of prophecy could give another result. But what if the year 1873 should pass away without the great, final consummation? Would the elder then believe no more in Moses and the prophets? or would he review his calculations?


Free Lectures. -- By request of J. W. McCagg (local merchant who also placed one adjacent and one nearby advertisements), Dr. N. H. Barbour, of Boston, will lecture at the Court House, Saturday evening, 7 1/2 o'clock; Sabbath morning, 10 1/2 o'clock; afternoon, 3 o'clock; evening, 7 1/2 o'clock. Subjects: "Bible Prophesies." -- Wyoming County Democrat, Warsaw, NY. November 13, 1873.


The Adventists have been holding a series of meetings the past week; N. H. Barbour of Boston Mass. was their chief speaker. According to his theory, the 20th of October will be the final consummation of all terrestial things; when the almighty will annihilate the wicked and deliver the earth purified into the possession of the saints. They evidently made but few converts. The community, believers as well as others, continue their usual avocations; the same love of filthy lucre characterizes them now as before; and as before the flood, all not furnished with a meet companion are ready to marry and give in marriage. -- The Naples Record, September 19, 1874.

SECOND ADVENT -- Elder N. H. Barbour, from Boston, will lecture at the Advent Hall ... He will give the evidence of the speedy coming of Christ. -- Auburn Daily Bulletin, November 28, 1874.

LECTURE -- Dr. N. H. Barbour, of Boston, will lecture at Franklin Hall ... [Saturday evening, Sunday morning and evening] ... Subject: Prophecy. -- The Dansville Advertiser, December 17, 1874.(edited)



Elder Barbour, the eminent Second Adventist who preached two stirring sermons in this village last Sunday, makes March 14th, 1875, the extreme limit of this world's duration. -- The Dansville Advertiser, December 24, 1874. (edited)

Dr. N. H. Barbour, of Boston, will lecture at Franklin Hall ... [Saturday evening, Sunday morning and evening] ... subject: Evidence showing that the gospel age dispensation closes the present year, the kingdom of God to succeed. -- The Dansville Advertiser, March 11, 1875.(edited)

There is a set of deluded chaps in and about Brockport NY led by one calling himself Dr. N. H. Barbour, who proclaims that Christ is to come and set up his Kingdom on Earth on the 6th of next April. -- The Union News, March 27, 1875.

Dr. N. H. Barbour, of Boston, will deliver a series of lectures ... at Second Advent Hall ... Subjects -- "Impending Crisis, Times of the Gentiles, and Advent of Christ. -- The Rochester Evening Express, March 30, 1875.

NOTICE. -- A general meeting of the Adventists interested in the time of the Lord's return will be held at Second Advent hall, No. 12 south St. Paul street, commencing this (Saturday) evening, May 1st, to continue over the following Sabbath. Elder John H. Paton, of Almont, Mich., D. Cogswell, of Dansville, N.Y., and Dr. N. H. Barbour, of Rochester, will be present. All are invited. -- The Rochester Evening Express, April 27, 1875.


NOTICE. -- Meeting at the Advent Hall, No. 12 South Paul street, Sunday, July 4th. Elder D. Cogswell, Dansville, is expected to preach at 10 1/2 A.M., Dr. N. H. Barbour at 2 1/2 P.M., and S. Withington, of Springwater, at 7 1/2 P.M. -- The Rochester Evening Express, July 3, 1875.


The Dansville Advertiser
March 18, 1875

Mathematics vs. Faith (edited)

We had the pleasure of attending on Sunday morning last one of the lectures of elder N. H. Barbour, of Boston, delivered at Franklin hall in this village. The attendance was good, there being present many of our leading citizens and quite a number of persons from out of town. The lecture was preceded by a conference meeting, which was characterized by much devotion and enthusiasm on the part of those who engaged in it. In fact, it resembled somewhat a Methodist love feast.

At 11 o'clock, Elder Barbour commenced his lecture, which occupied an hour. It resembled one of a mathematical professor's class lectures. His subject was sacred chronology, and his manner of dealing with it was clear and frank. There were, he said, some twenty sacred chronologists among whose reckonings there was much difference. Now who is right? The chronology which he had adopted was made up from the Bible. There were several breaks or weak points in biblical chronology, and a majority of chronologists had gone to Josephus to close up these breaks. But he (Barbour) went to the Bible, and had suceeded in making good these defects, not by direct testimony, however, but by inferential testimony. Up to the time of Cyrus, people had kept records by hieroglyphics, which were not always clear as to dates; since then they had need of a written language, and it was easy to reckon time by the eclipses, positively exact, to the day or the very hour. If we reckon rightly, the six thousand years were accomplished in the Jewish year 1873, or according to the modern calendar, tbe Fall of 1873. The speaker had thought that Christ must come at that time, at the exact conclusion of these six thousand years; that if he did not come at that time, sacred chronology, or the reckoning of it, was at fault, and he could believe in it no more. But he had learned something since then, within the past few months, and now saw how nicely it fitted with the scriptures that there should be a period in which God's mercy was displayed -- a time of probation, without which God's character and his word would not be fully exemplified.
One of his favorite methods of reckoning was by the system of Jewish Sabbaths and jubilees of fifty years. The Jews kept the six Sabbaths, but through unbelief, they did not keep the seventh, which is to come, and to be the Sabbath of rest to the children of God. Tbe reckoning of the Sabbaths is proved by the jubilee reckoning, and both point, (if the reckoning be correct) to the closing of the gospel age on the 5th day of April, 1875, and the succession of God's kingdom on the 6th day of April -- at which time Christ will come with all his angels. But the world shall know nothing of his coming any more than the Jews knew of the first advent of our Savior, in whom they did not believe; only those who are born again shall know that the kingdom has come. According to the doctrine of the speaker, those only are born again, in true scriptural sense, who believe as the Second Adventists believe, and who watch for his coming as they watch. The kingdoms of the world are to war against tbe kingdom of Christ, and tbe kingdom of Christ is to overcome the kingdoms of the world. Did the kingdoms of the world know that this was Christ's kingdom they would not war against it, and the scriptures would not be fulfilled.

Now we take it, the Adventists are upon safe ground. So that the world knows not when the kiugdom of God does come, it is perfectly safe for the time to be set, and no one can hold that it has not come when that time arrives. If he does so hold, he is not of the kingdom. In other words, an advocate of this doctrine can place his row of figures and add them up, and fetch tbe conclusion of the gospel dispensation down to the 5th of April, and commence the succession of God's kingdom at the first new moon after the vernal equinox of 1875, which is the 6th day of April, and claim that it has come when that time arrives without fear of contradiction, if none but those who believe with him are allowed to have any evidence of the same.

Never have we had so little faith in the doctrine of our honest enthusiasts as after listening to this lecture by Elder Barbour. This man, apparently candid in all his arguments, who has made sacred chronology the study of many years, looking upon all sides of it, admits the disagreements of the most eminent of chronologists on at least three vital points of reckoning, practically admits that he has changed his mind about the time of the second advent within the past few months, and then goes on to say if now we reckon rightly, and our reckonings seem to prove themselves, there can be no doubt that God's kingdom will suceed on tbe appearance of the first new moon after the vernal equinox of 1875, to wit, the 6th day of April. Could Elder Barbour measure off God's time as he measures off the jubilee periods on his cane, or could he count tbe years of law and of prophecy as he added up the rows of figures on the wall, then might it be admitted that he could make the time of the second advents mathematical demonstration. But it is plain enough to the most casual observer, that he, an honest, earnest man, and that his followers, earnest and devoted seekers after truth, are walking by the eye of sight and not by the eye of faith. The simple assertion of the faithful follower of Christ, "I know that my Redeemer liveth, and that he will come in his own good time, for he has said it, and I have faith to believe it," is worth a thousand times more than the mathematical statement, "I know that Christ will come at the time of the first moon after the vernal equinox of 1875, namely the 6th day of April, for I have figured it out; and no one shall know of this great coming but those who believe in these figures!"

We do not make these remarks to throw discredit upon this lecture and its believers, neither to provoke discussion. We believe that our friends are worthy of all esteem and that they are devout in their belief -- that the undevout sacred chronologist like "the undevout astronomer is mad." And we admit beforehand that either Elder Barbour or Elder Cogswell could cover our entire paper with figures and scriptural quotations to prove their positions and have enough left to pile up till a mountain they had made.


Free Lectures At Corinthian Hall, Sunday, September 5th, morning and afternoon. Continuation of the course of lectures commenced In the tent on East avenue Sunday, August 22, -- by Dr. N. H. Barbour. Subjects: -- At 10:30 a. m., "The Gospel Age: its beginning, its end, and its object." At 3 p. m., "The Roman Catholic Church; its past, Its present, and Its future, in the light of history and prophecy, as revealed in the Holy Scriptures." A welcome to all. -- Democrat and Chronicle, September 4, 1875.

Dr. N. H. Barbour, of Rochester, will be preaching in Franklin Hall ... [Sunday morn, aft, and even] ... Subject, Showing from the scriptures that we have reached the harvest or end of this age. -- Dansville Advertiser, October 28, 1875.

Dr. N. H. Barbour, of Rochester, preached in the Methodist church in this village Sunday afternoon on, "The Two Covenants", besides preaching twice in Franklin hall. -- Dansville Advertiser, March 6, 1876.

EDITORS NOTE: There is a story here. Note the "vanilla" sermon preached at the Methodist Church. Franklin Hall was the Second Advent Church of Dansville's regular meeting place. Barbour had preached the funeral of his and Jonas Wendell's friend and associate, Daniel Cogswell, at Dansville's Presbyterian Church on Friday. Me suspects the Methodists may have denied use of their building for Cogwell's funeral, but quickly repented. Afterwards, for at least a while, the Methodists allowed the Second Adventists to use their building.


(Pay particular attention to certain bolded/colored modern verbiage. Sound familiar?)

ALL INTERESTED in the study of the scriptures are cordially invited to the meetings at Corinthian hall tomorrow at 10:30 a.m., and 7:30 p.m., and at Good Templar's hall, corner Stone and Main streets at 3:00 p.m. These meetings are entirely unsectarian. Subjects at Corinthian hall, "The Three Worlds and Gospel Harvest." Addresses by Dr. N. H. Barbour. -- Rochester Democrat and Chronicle, February 3, 1877.

*********************                        ***********************

PREACHING TOMORROW at the Academy of Music, at 10:30 A. M., 3 and 7:30 P. M. Subjects: The Time of Trouble -- Daniel 12:1; the Return of the Jews, and the Dawn of the Millennium. The signs of the times clearly indicate the approach of great events; the disintegration of present institutions -- social, religious and political; the ending of the "times of the Gentiles" -- Luke 21:24; the return of the Jews, and the inauguration of a reign of righteousness -- the Millennium. At the above meeting it is expected to show that we have already entered the "time of trouble" of which so much is said in Scripture, which is to continue forty years, during which every man's hand will be against his neighbor; when "there will be no hire for man, nor hire for beast;" when "the slain of the Lord will be from one end of tbe earth even to the other." The object of which is, that "every knee shall bow and every tongue confess to God." Services will be conducted by Dr. N. H. Barbour and C. T. Russell. The above subjects illustrated by means of large painted charts. Seats free. All are welcome. -- The Buffalo Commercial, February 24, 1877, edited.


The Buffalo Evening Report
February 27, 1877
"The Millenium" (edited)

Large audiences gathered at the Academy of Music yesterday morning and last evening to listen to the discourses of N. H. Barbour, who, it had been announced would speak of the Millenium, and show from the Bible that we have already entered the "time of trouble" which is to usher it in.

IN THE MORNING, the speaker showed with the aid of an illustrated map or chart that the Bible plan of redemption spans "three worlds", ... followed by the "World to Come" in which are "Ages to Come", ... Proceeding further, the Doctor by referring to various arguments drawn from ... the charts urged that we are at THE END OF THE GOSPEL AGE, and are entering a "time of trouble," ... in the midst of which the kingdoms of this world are to pass into the hands of the Lord, and the millenial reign of righteousness will follow. ...

IN THE AFTERNOON, the Doctor's discourse related principally to the manner of the coming of the kingdom of Christ, ... the "kingdom of God" on earth is to be a spiritual kingdom, under the supervision of the Glorified Church, who are to be "Kings and Priests and reign on the earth," ...

IN THE EVENING, ... he demonstrated to his own satisfaction that ... the so called "end of the world" will transpire in the spring of 1878. As was the harvest in the Jewish dispensation, so is there being a harvest made now preparatory to the "marriage of the Lamb," and Christ will not be seen of men, until that has taken place. Then He will come in all His glory; but before that his chosen ones, who are to reign with Him, will have been taken quietly away.


AT ROBINSON'S OPERA-HOUSE, NINTH AND Plum sts. TOMORROW. Dr. Barbour will preach at 3 and 7:30 P.M. Subjects: The Time of Trouble," Dan. xxii:1. The Return of the Jews, Dawn of the Millennium, and The Three Worlds, or Bible Plan of Redemption. The Doctor will show from the Bible that we have already entered the "time of trouble," which is to usher in the Millennium. Seats free. All are welcome. -- Duplicates, The Cincinnati Enquirer, The Cincinnati Daily Star, April 28, 1877, edited.

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ONE N. H. Barbour, called Dr. Barbour, with his confreres, J. H. Paton and C. T. Russell, is traveling around the country, going everywhere that they can find Adventists, and preaching that Jesus has come secretly, and will soon be revealed, and mingling in their lectures a lot of "Age-to-come" trash, all to subvert their hearers. They are not endorsed by Adventists, "Age-to-come" folks, or anybody else, yet having some money and a few sympathizers they will probably run awhile. They have been to Ohio and Indiana and are working westward. We are credibly informed that one of them boasted in Union Mills, Ind., a few days since, that they would break up every Advent church in the land. We guess not. Their whole work is proselyting. The Lord never sent them on their mission. Give them no place, and go not near them or countenance them. -- ADVENT CHRISTIAN TIMES, July 18, 1877.


The Advents have fixed upon [December 27, 1877] as the date for the final dissolution of this mundane sphere. -- The Dansville Express, December 27, 1877.

The Second Adventists now declare that the millenium will commence in 1914; thirty-six years from the present time. Measured by the duration of human life, it will seem, to a person of 80 years, a great while to wait. In fact, their prognostications have failed so repeatedly, that most persons of advanced years will approve the wisdom of this adjournment of the millenium over to the next generation. -- The Ogdenburg Journal, January 19, 1878.

Elder N. H. Barbour, of Rochester, will be preaching in Franklin Hall this Sunday ... -- Dansville Advertiser, February 21, 1878.

N. H. Barbour, of Rochester, will deliver three lectures in Stout's Hall, at Honeoye, on Sunday, March 31st. Subject: "The Change of Dispensations". -- Livonia Gazette, March 29, 1878.


Evangelical, but not denominational, on Court street, corner of Stone street. This place will be opened again for regular religious worship on Sunday, April 27, at 3 P.M., and every Sunday at the same hour. Opening discourse, at the above hour, by Dr. N. H. Barbour. Subject: -- "God's Plan of the Ages for the Salvation of Man, through Christ, the Second Adam: the Ages illustrated by colored charts." All are invited. Seats free. No collection. -- Rochester Evening Express, April 26, 1878.



The Second Adventists, of Rochester, N. Y., led by one, N. H. Barbour, have fixed upon today, July 11, [1879] as the day of final conflagration, and, judging by the temperature for a week or so past, it might be inferred by even the most skeptical that the preliminary arrangements were already in progress. Whether the Lord is on Mr. Barbour's side or not, the thermometer certainly is. -- Lawrence Daily Reporter, July 11, 1879, edited.


Regular Public Meetings Being Held in Pittsburgh in 1878

The series of lectures by C. T. Russell on "Our Lord's Return" will be delivered at Excelsior Hall, corner Federal and Lacock streets, Allegheny CIty, commencing tomorrow at 3:00 P. M., instead of at Riverview Hall, corner Sixth Street and Duquesne Way, Pittsburgh, as heretofore announced. This change is made to accommodate the increased attendance. On the conclusion of this course of series, the meetings will be held as heretofore at Riverview Hall. -- Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, December 21, 1878.




The Express
Rochester, New York
[National Comvention] (edited)
August 29, 1881

About seventy-five*** members of the "Churoh of the Ecclesia," from abroad, yesterday morning attended the opening service of the [ten day] national convention of that body which is to be held during the present week, at the Church of the Stranger, on the corner of Court and Stone streets. Dr. N. H. Barbour, of this city, conducted the services. At the afternoon session, [Arthur] P. Adams***, of Beverly, Mass., spoke and at 6:30 Dr. Barbour lectured. (*** A. P. Adams and wife was one of the first Methodist Minister couples led into heresy by Charles Taze Russell. The most non-married delegates from one general area was NINE -- Greater Pittsburgh. This is just one more paragraph in the book entitled, "CTR: To Know Him Is To Despise Him".)

The members of the "Church of the Ecclesia" believe in the second coming of Christ, but differ from the Second Adventists in that they hold that the world is not to be destroyed. Dr. Barbour says: "We believe that the Second Advent will take place in October 1881, and that during the next seven years the church will be made incorruptible. At the end of seven years, the dead in Christ will be raised incorruptible, and then fulfil the saying: 'For this corruptible must be put on incorruption;' and in that condition we shall remain in this incorruptible flesh and life until the end of one thousand years. After this seven years is ended, in which the church shall put on incorruption, we believe that the seven last plagues will be poured out upon mankind, and for thirty-three years the world will pass through a baptism of flre. At the end of thirty years, Christ will take his seat on his throne, and reign over the nations; 'and all peoples and nations and languages shall serve and obey him.'"



The following trip to B. W. Keith's hometown would have been done under the auspices of Zion's Watch Tower Tract Society during the brief period between the end of Paton's relationship with Barbour and the soon end of Paton's relationship with CTR.

Eld. J. H. Paton of Almont, Mich., will preach at Whiteman's hall next Saturday evening ... [Sunday morn, aft, and evening] ... A cordial invitation is extended to all. -- The Dansville Express, May 13, 1880.



Shortterm long distance associate of Charles Taze Russell and Nelson Barbour, Hugh Brown Rice, of California, and publisher of the short-lived magazine, THE LAST TRUMP, was variously a Presbyterian Minister and a Christian Church minister, who once pastored in Norwalk, Ohio, and thus knew some of the Norwalk Second Adventists who personally knew Jonas Wendell and George Stetson, and later, Charles Taze Russell and Benjamin Keith.

Just like CTR, Hugh Rice had problems being completely honest with public disclosures, and such may have occurred when he probably was forced to closed out THE LAST TRUMP after only a few months of publication. In May 1879, Rice was selected for a Los Angeles Grand Jury. Given that Rice was likely doing everything required to be done with THE LAST TRUMP, impanelment would have been enough to put the new magazine out of business.

Obviously, not needed to connect H. B. Rice to Second Adventism, the THE LAST TRUMP's "motto", which appears unpublished until now, will put any question to rest:

"Devoted specially to the investigation of
the time, manner, and object of the second coming of our Lord."


The "Disciples of Christ," who have recently organized an "Oakland Mission,'' have made arrangements to meet hereafter in the Advent Chapel, corner Thirteenth and Clay streets, instead of under Dietz Opera House. Mr. Hugh B. Rice, who claims to be simply a "Gospel Preacher" of the primitive order, will preach every Lord's day at 11 a.m. The Sunday school will be at 9:30 a.m. -- Oakland Tribune, August 18, 1877.

In the 1890s, after returning to live in Oakland, H. B. Rice associated with a "Straud" who co-hosted Rice's funeral in 1905. This may have been William Lee Stroud, or a relative, who edited the religious magazine, EUSEBIUS, given that Rice had a couple of insertions, or even possibly more under a nom de plume.

Note that Rice's always-present financial problems apparently disappeared during the last two decades of his life operating a travel agency. One obituary declared that Rice was one of the best known men in Los Angeles in 1905. Rice had recently vacationed in eastern Canada, Europe, and the Far East.


The April 1880 ZION'S WATCH TOWER was the last issue in which H. B. Rice was listed as a "Regular Contributor" -- without explanation. Here's why. Apparently, Hugh Rice had become part of the "Christadelphian" branch of the Age-To-Comers. We know that this is H. B. Rice because this was one of at least five weekends that Rice preached at this church during April-May 1880.

Some New Doctrines. Mr. [H. B.] Rice's theme for this evening's lecture at the Christian Church on Sutter street, between Main street and Weber Avenue, will be: "The Unpardonable Sin." Tomorrow evening, "The riches which Jesus laid aside for us not up in Heaven." On Sunday at 2 oclock, "The answer to Pilate's question, 'What is truth?'" and at 7 1/2 o'clock Sunday evening the theme will be "The Devil not an immortal fallen angel." The object will be to show from the Scriptures that no such being exists. If "The Devil" has any friends in Stockton who wish to defend him, Mr. Rice invites them to attend. The lectures are free to all. -- Stockton Mail, April 23, 1880.


Attends 1888 COG Conference in Philadelphia

After ever so diplomatically separating himself from the grips of the two nutjobs Charles Taze Russell and Nelson Barbour, around 1879-80, H. B. Rice began associating with Richard Corbaley and other California Age-To-Come Second Adventists who also had had shortterm relationships with Charles Taze Russell, but had quickly terminated such.

Around 1883-84, a new Brooklyn-based second adventist "Association for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge", had been founded by a handful of disaffected Second Adventists -- many of whom were Age-To-Comers. The Association shamelessly proclaimed itself to be "non-sectarian" (does that ring a bell?), with its main purpose to be the teaching of a "pure christianity", all while promoting "conditional immortality", and the pre-millennial advent and reign of Jesus Christ. See Brooklyn "Church of the Blessed Hope" pastored by George Kramer.

That small group had limited success, so arranged with other Age-To-Comers across the country to hold a General Conference in Philadelphia from November 16-26, 1888, at the Philly COG church pastored by C . C. Ramsay. Apparently, Hugh B. Rice attended that 1888 COG Conference given the fact that Rice and Ramsay spent the following month attempting to resurrect a closed church in Wilmington, Delaware, which once had been affiliated with the "Association for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge", and had even been pastored by George Storrs' disciple Rufus Wendell from 1882-84.

The congregation of the Household of Faith will hold services in King Street Baptist Meeting House today. Hugh B. Rice, of California, will preach this morning on "The Bread From Heaven", and this evening on "God's Plan". Elder William Sivel, of Philadelphia, will conduct a testimony meeting at 3:00 p.m. -- The Sunday Morning Star, Wilmington, Delaware, December 2, 1888.

The Household of Faith congregation will have services in its former place of worship, on Tatnall street, between Seventh and Eighth, tomorrow. Elder Hugh B. Rice, of California, will preach in the morning, and Elder C. C. Ramsay, of Philadelphia, in the evening. At a meeting to be held at 3:00 p.m., there will be taken an expression of opinion relative to repurchasing the church building. -- The Sunday Morning Star, Wilmington, Delaware, December 16, 1888.

CHURCH OF THE SECOND ADVENT, ... C. C. RAMSAY, Pastor. 10:45 -- The second discourse of the series on "The Coming of the Lord." 7:45 -- Elder Sivel: subject -- "Spirit Worship". Mission, ... 7:45 -- The Pastor, "The Millennial Age". -- The Philadelphia Record, April 14, 1888.

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The Historical Revisionists have yet again twisted history in their unceasing attempts to obscure early WatchTower Cult history. This time it regards yet another unstable "flash in the pan" Second Adventist named Eleazar Owen. Eleazar Owen, of New Hampshire, visited the Pittsburgh Second Adventists in September 1875 -- probably looking for a job, possibly at the private recommendation of the ultimate unstable Second Adventist known as George Storrs. 

Eleazar Owen had been an early-30s seminary-trained Connecticut minister, from Massachusetts, who apparently got caught up in one of the latter 1860s Second Advent predictions, and converted to the ACC in 1867. Owen returned to Massachusetts and pastored the Westfield ACC, and while "running hot", soon became an officer in the Mass ACC conference for a few short years. Owen survived the multiple latter-1860s disappointments -- probably by refocusing on 1873/74. After the 1873/74 disappointment, Eleazar Owen's newest "shiny object" became "George Storrs-ism", and whatever the latest version of "Storrs-ism" entailed. In September 1875, this small timer somehow wound up visiting the Second Adventists in Pittsburgh -- with George Storrs being the common denominator. Owen made such an impression on Joseph Russell that JLR thought his name was "Owens" in JLR's report to Storrs.

When nothing came from his visit to Pittsburgh, Eleazar Owen and the ACC soon parted company. Owen claimed to have resigned before being disfellowshipped from the ACC. In any event, in less than six months after Eleazar Owen returned home from Pittsburgh, Owen joined the FREEWILL BAPTISTS -- reopening a closed FB church in April 1876. Eleazar Owen died a Freewill Baptist Minister in 1896.


Charles Taze Russell -- Early Christadelphian Association

"If Russell and [J. H.] Thomas associated on any sort of friendly basis, ... .  
We do not know what connection Lucius [Thomas] had with Clowes or Russell."

Newbies first should be aware that CTR published in the June 1881 ZWT a lengthy extract from a published public lecture that Christadelphian Dr. J. H. Thomas had delivered in Pittsburgh. That is most researchers first lead to CTR's early courtship with Christadelphianism. That unavoidable fact presents a major problem for those "scholars" whose agenda is to whitewash CTR's messy history.

What have those "scholarly" whitewashers done? The same thing that they did to B. W. Keith and others -- they twist what they cherry-pick to disclose and secret whatever disproves their agenda. In this case, they simply ignored the feces, and jumped straight to the easily predictable "divorce", which always occurred between CTR and his "lovers", and used such to disclaim earlier association and influence.

In fact, JHT's brother, Dr. L. C. Thomas, not only "associated on a friendly basis" with CTR, Clowes, and other members of CTR's first congregation, but Dr. L. C. Thomas even quickly became the main speaker at multiple meetings in early-to-mid 1879. When Dr. J. H. Thomas relocated to Pittsburgh in late summer 1879, he too was given the pulpit on an increasing frequency. Whatever disagreements eventually later developed did not stop CTR from publishing the aforementioned 1881 ZWT article.

It took us little time and effort to discover the answers to "scholar's" published "questions", but given their time and efforts spent supporting their agenda, ... . PS: Henry Cornman was JHT's BIL.

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In the April 1882 ZION'S WATCH TOWER, future ZWTTS Director William Mann briefly mentioned Charles Guiteau as a bringer of "odium" on Babylon the Great. How little Mann knew. Like someone else we know, Charles J. Guiteau claimed to be an "unaffiliated" believer in an imminent "Second Advent" after doing his own biblical research during the mid 1870s. Thereafter, Charles Guiteau authored a book entitled, "THE TRUTH". Charles J. Guiteau also traveled and lectured in undocumented locations. It is known that Charles Guiteau visited California and Boston, and had lectured in Wisconsin in Summer 1877. Charles Jules Guiteau also lectured in Washington D.C. in 1881. 

GO AND HEAR CHARLES J. GUITEAU, (A Chicago lawyer and theologian,) on "Christ's Second Coming," and get some new and valuable ideas. He will show that the final judgment is now close at hand. See posters at the hotels and stores. Congregational Church, Friday, December 7, eight p. m. Admission twenty-five cents. -- The National Republican,Washington D.C.,December 6, 1877.




May 26, 1913

Hon. William Jennings Bryan, Secretary of State, U. S. A.

Dear Sir:

I am addressing you, and through you the Hon. President of this nation, and the honorable members of congress upon a subject which I believe to be of prime importance to our nation and to the world. I would have preferred to make this communication a private one, but believe that its object will be much better served if it be known at home and abroad that the suggestion comes from a native citizen, a minister of the gospel and an ambassador of Christ, rather than if the same suggestions were to emanate from some official of our government or from a politician.

The World's Peace Endangered

A year ago I visited Japan and observed the congested conditions there prevailing, and learned that her population is increasing very rapidly, while every foot of arable land is under "Intense" cultivation. Japan's need for room for her overflow population has already led her to grasp Korea, and it is no secret that she longs for possession of the Philippine Islands, and would be glad of a reasonable pretext for taking possession of them. Many broad-minded Americans have suggested that the United States has no desire to acquire colonies in an imperial sense, and that, therefore, the Philippine Islands should be surrendered to the Filipinos. The only objection urged against this move is that the Filipinos are not as yet sufficiently advanced in civilization to properly govern themselves. And those most intimate with the situation have not the slightest doubt that if the United States withdrew from the Philippines, the Japanese government would immediately take control, and would be inundated with Japanese -- undoubtedly to their benefit as the latter people are more thrifty and prudent and energetic than the Filipinos.

Some Startling Suggestions.

I suggest that the United States government select from amongst the Philippine Islands one island suitable as a naval base, and tender to Japan the opportunity to take over the Philippine Islands at precisely the same they have cost the United States. This would give our neighbors of the Far East exactly what they want, at no price at all compared with the cost of war. Additionally, it would make them our friends and surely all Americans desire a world-wide friendship with all nations. I advise that this step be taken speedily, because there is a "jingo" party in Japan bent upon the acquirement of the Philippines, which party will always be ready to take advantage of such trifles as the California alien law to incite hatred against the United States and to force their government, against its judgment, to seize the Philippines.

It is human nature for the Japanese to want those islands -- to feel that they need them. It is practical common sense to say that they can take them whenever they are ready. The Unites States could not retake the Philippines except at the expense of many lives and thousands of millions of dollars -- if at all.

Our Japanese neighbors flushed with their victory over the Russian navy, and courageous and proud-spirited, anyway, realize fully their ability to capture the Philippines and probably to hold them but they do not realize that a war with America would he a very different one from that with Rusia -- that American pride and valor would spend thousands of lives and thousands of millions of dollars, rather than surrender to Japan. Pride, courage, self-esteem, confidence, on both sides are the real dangers. Surely wisdom should dictate to both nations that, in the interest of peace, cause for friction should be as far as possible eliminated. I believe that no more fair, no more just, no more honorable method for adjudicating this matter can be found than that we are suggesting -- the sale of the islands at cost to the Japanese.

Japan would give the Philippines a splendid government -- better, I believe than would any other nation under the sun except our own government. No one can visit the Philippines with out feeling pride for what America has done for that people -- and one in so unselfish and noble a manner, as an elder brother amongst the nations helping a younger brother. Under no circumstances would I favor turning the Philippines over to the domination of a barbaric people. The Japanese are not barbarians, but highly civilized.

My discourse in Washington, May 25th, "Peace Desirable, War a Necessity", was evidently misunderstood by some of my peace friends. While I claimed that nations have never been able to avoid war, and that, they never will be able to wholly avoid it until the inauguration of Messiah's kingdom, nevertheless I believe that all lovers of peace, should unite their hearts and voices and pens and every energy in removing all unnecessary friction between nations, by doing in advance those things which would make for peace and by promoting them. For instance, if the move I am suggesting were delayed until the Japanese had made an attack upon the Philippines, it would be too late. American pride would never consent to an overture of sale under distress, nor would the Japanese probably be willing to purchase them. Now seems to be the psychological moment, and, as stated at first, it seems best that these suggestions should come from an ambassador of Christ, rather than from a politician of any party, so that partisan feeling may not interfere, but our nation as a whole approve and uphold and carry speedily forward this peace-promoting measure. I call for its endorsement by peace societies and all who believe that war should be only a last resort.

Faithfully yours, a servant of the Lord Christ Jesus,

C. T. Russell


The Millennial Dawn. This volume, in common with all the writings of the Second Adventists, is introduced by copious quotations of scripture bearing more or less directly on the subject in hand. ... The whole idea of Christ's personal reign on the earth is merely a revamping of the Jewish idea of the Messiah's kingdom. ... It has been said that the book lacks clearness. This is not said unkindly. Uncertainty is the controling element in the whole case which consists in an attempt to pry into that which God has wisely concealed. ... Each man sets out with a certain theory, and warps the fact to suit it. -- Iron County Register, March 10, 1887, edited.


The fourth volume of what seems to be a serial work under the general title of "Millennial Dawn" comes fresh and, it would be quite proper to say, hot from the press of the Tower Publishing Company of Allegheny, Pa. It is referred to by the publishers as "a helping hand for Bible students." The writer professes to be an interpreter of the signs of the times as well as of the Bible, and his conclusion is that things are getting worse and worse, and that the nations are hastening on to their judgment. Like all persons who have a special theory to advocate, he turns everything into grist for his mill. The prophecies of the Bible all point in one way -- his way. All who have presumed to differ from his conclusions are faise prophets. It is such books that tend to make intelligent people disgusted with the Bible and its professed interpreters. -- THE CHICAGO TRIBUNE, 1898.

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May 29, 1866

MESSIANIAN EVANGELICAL SECOND Advent Conference, of Pennsylvania, will hold its annual session in Washington Hall, S. W. corner of EIGHTH and SPRING GARDEN Streets. The opening sermon will be preached by Rev. L. OSLER, of Providence, R. I. this Tuesday evening, the 29th of May. Morning session on Wednesday, at 10 1/2 o'clock. The Conference Sermon will be preached in the evening by Rev. W. H. SWARTZ, of Massachusetts. Ministers and members of all Evangelical Churches are cordially invited to attend and join us in the discussion of the following great and important questions: --

First. Is the coming of Christ a spiritual or a literal personal event.
Second. Is there probation extended to man after the coming of Christ.
Third. Is the Millennium to be in the new earth or on the old earth.