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I tell you ["Pastor" Russell] owns no more than the clothes he stands up in. I have been associated with him for 14 years, and I know what I am talking about. ["Pastor" Russell] doesn't need to exploit religion if he wants to make money. The First National Bank in Allegheny used to pay him $100.00 a month ($3000.00 in 2021 dollars) to give them half an hour's advice every Monday morning on the investment of their funds. ["Pastor" Russell] gave that up at last, because God's work occupied all his time. -- Aussie Bethelite #2, Edward Nelson, to Kiwi reporter inquiring about CTR's vast financial empire, April 1915, Christchurch, New Zealand. (Taking Nelson's boast from "hilarious" to "hhhmmmm???" was Nelson's separate claim that he had visited the western United States -- possibly sometime around 1911-13.)

In 1886, which just coincidentally was the same year that Charles Taze Russell's signature book, The Divine Plan of the Ages, first began to be sold, Charles Taze Russell became one of five Pittsburgh area speculators who founded a West Virginia corporation named the U.S. LUBRIC OIL COMPANY, whose purpose was oil, gas, coal, and other minerals exploration in West Virginia. Charles Taze Russell owned 25% of that company -- 325 of the 1300 authorized shares ($50.00 par). (John Snee owned a mere 10 shares in this new venture. One of the other partners is possibly also Russell's 50% partner in the Boiler Cleaning Compound manufacturing business discussed below.)


C. T. RUSSELL, JOHN SNEE AND S. M. BOYD v. ANDERSON ASH. June 1888. Ejectment action in Butler County. 40 acres.

In 1889, Charles Taze Russell, John Snee, and three others purchased 1/5 interests in William Snee's application for a patent on a steam generator. The Canadian patent was obtained in 1892.
In 1889, Russell and two others purchased 1/3 interests in William Snee's application for a patent on a hydrocarbon burner.

In 1889, C. T. Russell and two others purchased 1/3 interests in William Snee's application for another patent on a steam generator.

JOHN BALFOUR v. CHARLES TAZE RUSSELL and GEORGE RINDFUSS was a 1895 Pennsylvania Supreme Court case. In the early 1890s, Charles Taze Russell and George Rindfuss purchased an oil and gas lease on 70 acres in Butler County from JOHN SNEE, the original lessee developer (as of 1889). The lease already included one producing oil well drilled by Snee. Russell and Rindfuss drilled two more oil wells, one of which produced oil. The landowner brought this lawsuit in an unsuccessful fraudulent attempt to terminate the lease. (Interestingly, George E. Rindfuss was a local Russellite, but more importantly, was Charles Taze Russell's personal bookkeeper and "Business Representative" who kept an office at the "Bible House" -- including buying, selling, and managing rental properties for Charles Taze Russell under his own personal name. George Rindfuss died of unknown causes in 1896, at the age of 35.)

CHARLES TAZE RUSSELL v. ROCK RUN FUEL GAS COMPANY and JOHN SNEE was a 1895 to 1898 Pennsylvania Supreme Court case. In August 1893JOHN SNEEGeorge Rindfuss, and three others formed Rock Run Fuel Gas Company to drill, pipe, and sell natural gas to businesses located in Allegheny County. In November 1894, Charles Taze Russell purchased 300 of the corporation's 1500 authorized shares ($50.00 par), or 20% of the company, from John Snee, at an unknown price.

In 1895, Russell filed this lawsuit claiming fraud on the part of Snee, and collusion on part of the Board of Directors, with regard to purchases of gas leases from Snee by the company. CTR claimed that the entire BOD only owned 104 shares, and that they paid Snee $53,500.00 for leases worth only $18,200.00.

At an April 1897 hearing, CTR testified that he was involved in numerous businesses. CTR even admitted that he had once owned several of the wells which he was accusing John Snee of misrepresenting. CTR even claimed that he had gifted 45 shares of stock to "two friends" in some unexplained way to find out the value of the remainder of his shares??? CTR habitually started LYING the instant his arse landed in a witness seat, AND CTR was one of those halfwits that thought that he was so much smarter than evryone else in the world that noone knew that he was lying.

Both the local trial court and the Pennsylvania Supreme Court ruled against Russell. Interestingly, the Pennsylvania Supreme Court labeled Charles Taze Russell "an experienced oil operator", who "had full knowledge of the property and the bargain when he was negotiating for and bought his stock". It is not known how long after this lawsuit that Russell held onto his 347 shares, but the until-then unprofitable company became profitable shortly thereafter. In 1901, the number of authorized shares was increased from 1500 to 16,000. That financial genius Charles Taze Russell strikes (out) again!!!

During the 1890s, Charles Taze Russell can be found to be speculating -- buying and selling -- oil, gas, and coal leases in neighboring counties with slow regularity. In 2021 dollars, values ranged from $100,000.00 to $300,0000.00. We aren't talking about stock shares.

During the RUSSELL DIVORCE TRIAL, it was briefly mentioned that Charles Taze Russell was also a member of the "Black's Run Coal Syndicate", which was a group of Pittsburg "capitalists" who formed Black's Run Coal Company in the latter 1890s. This syndicate reportedly paid $4,000,000.00 for over 500 pieces of coal property, totalling over 40,000 acres, located in Westmoreland and Allegheny counties. (Interestingly, during the later Russell Divorce trial, while being questioned by Maria Russell's attorney, Mr. Porter, about his multiple businesses and investments, Charles Taze Russell testified,"No, I have never had any coal interests that I know of, Mr. Porter.")
In September 1902, Charles Taze Russell, along with four of the Watch Tower Society's Officers and Directors -- Henry Weber, E. C. Henninges, William N. Wright, and William E. Van Amburgh -- founded the UNITED STATES COAL & COKE COMPANY, whose purpose was to mine coal and manufacture coke in Pennsylvania. Each founder received 200 shares. Authorized capital was $100,000.00. Paid in capital was $10,000.00 ($302,000.00 in 2021 dollars). Activities unknown. (Interestingly, during the later Divorce trial, while being questioned by Maria Russell's attorney, Mr. Porter, about his multiple businesses and investments, Charles Taze Russell testified, "No, I have never had any coal interests that I know of, Mr. Porter.")
Circa 1890, Charles Taze Russell purchased 25% of a small unidentified Pittsburgh company which manufactured and sold boiler cleaning compound. Jesse Dubbs was the inventor of the product and founder of this small company. Dubbs also sold another 50% interest to the Manager of the company. In Russell's own spun version of this business deal, Russell recommended the purchase of his own 25% share and Dubbs' remaining 25% share to a second Russellite who needed a way to earn a living. Russell claimed to have even financed (free) the purchase of both interests. Russell further claimed that the business was eventually a failure for the Russellite, who returned home to Virginia, and stuck Russell with the 50% interest in the business without ever repaying any amount on the loans. Russell claimed that he not only lost the money that he had admittedly overpaid Dubbs for his original share, plus lost what the Russellite had paid Dubbs for the remaining 25% share, but that he had also had to pay out even additional monies due to the failure of the business. Interestingly, records show Jesse Dubbs operating the business in the latter 1890s into the early 1900s.
In an 1893 patent application filed by Jesse Dubbs relating to lime production, Charles Taze Russell had purchased 1/3 ownership.
In another 1893 Jesse Dubbs patent application relating to sinking mine shafts, Russell purchased 25% ownership.
In 1894, Charles Taze Russell was granted 50% interest in five years of rights to a Canadian patent owned by Jesse Dubbs which was related to "Oil Refining".
In 1894, Charles Taze Russell became one of the five original incorporators of the PITTSBURG ASPHALTUM COMPANY, which manufactured sulphuric acid in addition to asphalt. It is unclear whether CTR was part owner of the unincorporated predecessor Pittsburg Asphaltum Company Limited. It also is unclear whether CTR was part owner of the successor company, CALIFORNIA ASPHALTUM COMPANY, and its affiliated California company, the Mexican Sulphur Company.

Readers should know that Charles Taze Russell published a "Recommendation Letter" from Jesse Dubbs in ZION'S WATCH TOWER magazine as part of Russell's Defense to the 1894 REBELLION (John Snee is also mentioned). I'm not surprised that Dubbs would have provided such, no doubt at Russell's request, given the fact that Russell was a ready and willing "mark" for stock that Dubbs wanted to dump, as well as Russell serving as a ready supplier of loans for Dubbs' many business ventures. It is our suspicion that Russell probably lost money on the TOTAL of all business dealings he ever did with Jesse Dubbs (and probably also with John Snee) over the years, because Dubbs' (and Snee's) modus operandi was to sell off stock in operations when (further) success was doubtful, while Dubbs borrowed money for those operations which he believed were going to be successful.
This also raises the issue of Charles Taze Russell being charged with "gambling" by some of his closest Russellite followers during the 1894 REBELLION. In his ZWT Rebuttal, Russell rebutted the selling of "oil futures" via an oil broker as constituting"gambling", which may be "routine business" today, but was viewed as "gambling" back in 1894. IN FACT, in 1894, many states OUTLAWED the trading in stocks and commodities "futures" as being a form of "gambling". Whether or not Pennsylvania had or had not done so is not known, but even if it had not, Russell had many followers who lived in states where trading in "oil futures" was a FELONY(Simply because Russell was trading in "futures" in Pennsylvania does not confirm that such trading was then legal in that state. Backroom "futures" trading parlors were set up all across the U.S. much the same way as were brothels, drug dens, and gambling parlors -- by the then same "organized crime" groups.)
It is our "suspicion" that Charles Taze Russell made lots of money in some ventures, but that Russell also lost lots of money in other ventures. Anyone familiar with investing in oil, gas, coal, and other minerals, back in the 1800s, knows that there was a thin line between "investing" and "gambling". The fact that Charles Taze Russell repeatedly did business as "friends" with Jones, Dubbs, and Snee (and no doubt others similar in character -- see John Limegrover, Jr below) has to raise questions as to Russell's judgment and Russell's personal character. Interestingly, Jesse Dubbs suffered a notable period of financial hardship around 1909, which was the same time when Charles Taze Russell "cashed out" his Pittsburgh operations and escaped to Brooklyn.
Readers should NEVER FORGET that most of these now disclosed Charles Taze Russell businesses and investments are known to us only because there was some controversy or other notable event that arose out of such that led to some type of documenting public record. Who knows how many other businesses were owned and/or operated by Charles Taze Russell for which no public record developed?
In Russell's 1894 REBELLION Defense, which Charles Taze Russell published as a separate Special Edition of ZWT magazine, Russell "spun" his own version of one business-deal-gone-bad in which Pittsburg Russellite Otto Von Zech had inherited a significant amount of money and wanted in on one of Russell's oil wells after being so persuaded by fellow Russellite George Rindfuss, who had sold Von Zech one-half of his own 12.5% share. Russell also sold Von Zech one-half of Russell's own 25% share -- supposedly only after first trying to dissuade the purchase. When that oil well stopped producing soon after the sales/purchases, Russell claimed that he eventually felt obliged to reimburse the disgruntled Russellite's loss.
In 1890, Charles Taze Russell, Allegheny Russellite/Employee George Rindfuss (see above), Allegheny Russellite/Employee Otto Von Zech, and (occasionally insane) LIQUOR DISTRIBUTOR and assumed Russellite John Limegrover, Jr., all joined with local inventor Paul Huether to form THE HUETHER PATENT CHASE COMPANY -- a corporation formed in West Virginia "for the purpose of purchasing the Paul Huether patents in printers chases for the United States and Canada, and manufacturing and dealing in the same". Initially, Paul Huether owned 996 shares of the $100.00 par stock, with Russell and his associates owning only one share each. Paul Huether was President. Russell was Vice-President. Rindfuss was Sect/Treasurer. The "Bible House" was the corporate address. Apparently, there was a side agreement as to how Russell and Associates would gradually acquire the balance of Huether's stock, or otherwise financially benefit from this transaction.
INTERESTINGLY, from 1890 through 1894, a PRINTING BUSINESS was operated out of Watch Tower Society Headquarters, named HUETHER & COMPANY. It was supposedly owned by Paul Huether. However, the employees were Otto Von Zech, Elmer Bryan, and other 2-3 other Russellites who just so happened to also live in Charles Taze Russell owned housing. After the 1894 REBELLION resulted in Bryan, Von Zech, and others being "disfellowshipped", HUETHER & COMPANY moved out of the "Bible House". Eventually, other "printers" were thereafter hired to work at the "Bible House", as evidenced by occasional advertisements in local newspapers advertising job printing work available to local citizens and businesses.

Decades later, an elderly William Omeis related that he had worked for HUETHER & COMPANY when he was a young boy of 12-13 years old. Omeis was hired only shortly after the 1894 REBELLION, and only shortly after HUETHER & COMPANY had moved from WatchTower HQ. Interestingly, Omeis related that Otto Von Zech had gotten him this job, because "Otto Von Ze[ch] was a partner in [HUETHER & COMPANY], and also an associate of C. T. Russell." Despite the 1894 REBELLION, and despite the supposed split between Russell and Otto Von Zech, and despite the fact that HUETHER & COMPANY apparently had been forced to move out of WatchTower HQ, Charles Taze Russell continued to employ HUETHER & COMPANY to do printing for himself and the Watch Tower Society. In September 1896, HUETHER & COMPANY was dissolved. At that time, it was reported that Paul Huether and Otto Von Zech were the owners -- with each of them continuing in the printing business as sole proprietors.
William Omeis related that he and some of the other workers at HUETHER & COMPANY referred to Charles Taze Russell as"Billy Goat Russell". Omeis further related that he would be sent to WatchTower HQ with "proofs" to be approved by "Pastor" Russell. Omeis related that it was Maria Russell's job to read the proofs a first time, and then, "Billy Goat Russell" would read the proofs a second time. Omeis stated that Charles Taze Russell would "snarl" at Maria Russell if she had missed anything. Omeis described Maria Russell as "a rather mousy woman", and stated that Charles Taze Russell "treated [Maria Russell] like a servant, rather than a wife".


In Spring 1894, several of the WatchTower Society's most prominent Bethelites, Colporteurs, and even a WatchTower Society Director, whom all had worked intimately with Charles Taze Russell for several years, brought public charges before the Allegheny Congregation against Russell with regard to what they perceived to be an established pattern of unchristian, unethical, and even illegal business dealings on Russell's part. Setting the pattern for decades to come, Russell "circled the wagons" loaded with unquestioning sycophants, slandered and defamed his accusers, and "disfellowshipped" those whom had the courage to tell"Emperor Russell" that he was "wearing no clothes".

Prominent Bethelite and intimate friend of Russell, Elmer Bryan, whom had loyally served Russell for several years at WatchTower HQ, apparently had become fed up with Russell's constant "shady" and "crafty" business dealings, and posted a number of charges, some of which Russell dismissed as being petty, including Bryan's complaint that Russell had once advertised for rent in a local newspaper one of Russell's rental houses under Bryan's own name, without first asking Bryan if it were okay with Bryan. This may be a petty charge while standing alone, but there is such a thing as "the straw that broke the camel's back"(Typically, Russell advertised his rental properties under the name of George Rindfuss -- see above.)

Elmer Bryan also accused Russell of deceiving the general public with regard to the authorship, publication, and distribution of THE DIVINE PLAN OF THE AGES shortly after its first publication in 1886. In early 1887, Russell devised a scheme to "loan" copies of THE DIVINE PLAN OF THE AGES across the United States in hopes that those readers would eventually pay for those copies, as well as recommend Russell's book to other purchasers. Russell also schemed to obtain FREE ADVERTISING from magazines and newspapers across the United States.

Here is a self-explanatory sampling of those FREE ADS ran by countless newspapers and magazines across the United States.(Some 1887 newspapers spelled out that their readers should send their request to: "Mrs. C. B. Lemuels, Allegheny, Pennsylvania", while others assumed that their readers could decipher simple 1887 addresses on their own.) Note the subterfuge of Russell's failing to identify the mysterious "MRS. C. B. LEMUELS" as actually being his Watch Tower Society clerical staff, along with Russell's failure to even provide the title of the book in these ads so as to not harm future sales.Who knows how genuine are the "testimonial letters". Even if real, they probably were solicited by Russell and authored by sycophants.

San Francisco Chronicle
Monday, April 18, 1887

She Offers to Send Religious Book to All Who Will Read It

Mrs. C. B. Lemuels of Allegheny has been making a generous offer through the newspapers of the country, and letters to her have been pouring in at the rate of seventy-five a day. Several men and boys are being kept busy in answering the inquiries. Her notice offers to loan free of postage to such as will return it, a book which shows the Bible to be a self-interpreted and its teachings grandly harmonious viewed in the light of sanctified reason and common sense, and to put this book into the hands of all the skeptically inclined as an aid and guard against the growling scientific skepticism.

Mrs. Lemuels identity at first could not easily be established. It was found that she received her letters at the office of of J. C. Russell, editor of Zion's WatchTowerRussell explained that Mrs. Lemuels' husband does not like the notoriety her circulars gave his wife, and besides he does not agree with her religious views. Russell said that Mrs. Lemuels possesses a comfortable fortune in her own right and felt it her duty to make as public as possible the book which had helped her.


Detroit Free Press
Monday, April 18, 1887
The Novel Method Pursued by an Allegheny Lady For Doing Good.
Pittsburgh. April 10 Special!
Allegheny has a philanthropist. Mrs. C. B. Lemuels has been making a generous offer through the newspapers of the country, and letters to her have been pouring in at the rate of seventy-five per day. Several men and boys are being kept busy in answering these inquiries. Her notices offer to loan, free of postage, to such as will return it, a book which shows the Bible "to be a self-interpreter, and its teachings grandly harmonious, viewed in the light of sanctified reason and common sense." "I want," says her circular, "to put this book into the hands of the skeptically inclined as an aid and guard against growing scientific skepticism, it is not dry, musty reading, but truly meat in due season to the hungry."
Mrs. Lemuels, whose identity at first could not easily be established, it was found received her letters at the office of J. C. Russell, editor of "Zion's Watch Tower." Mr. Russell said that Mrs. Lemuels possesses a comfortable fortune in her own right and felt it her duty to make as public as possible a book which helped her so much. Mr. Russell then permitted copies of a number of letters to be taken. A New York pressman writes: "Dear Lady: Seeing your good, kind, generous offer I have been thinking that now is the time for me to try and be saved and not wait until the last day. 1 am only 23, and for the past week have been troubled with kidney complaint, and am just now beginning to realize my awful fate unless I turnover a new leaf. I trust l am deserving of the loan of your valuable book."
Democrat and Chronicle (Rochester, New York)
Saturday, April 23, 1887
Allegheny, Pa. , has a philanthropist, says the New York Tribune.
Mrs. C. B. Lemuels has been making a generous offer through the newspapers of the country, and letters to her have been pouring in at the rate of seventy-five a day. Her notices offer to loan free of postage to such as will return it, a book which shows the Bible "to be a self -interpreter." "I want," says her circular,"to put this book into the hands of all the skeptically inclined as an aid and guard against the growling scientific skepticism." Mrs. Lemuels' husband does not like the notoriety her circulars gave his wife, and besides he does not agree with her religious views, Mrs. Lemuels possesses a comfortable fortune in her own right.
Among the letters received is the following from a Portchester, N.Y., man: "For many years I was a local preacher. Even at that time doubts would often trouble me. I have taken no part in the meetings for years simply because I do not want to create doubts in others. I should be happy if I could have the old faith returned." A New York pressman writes: "Dear lady: I have been thinking that now is the time for me to try and be saved and not wait until the lost day. I am only 23, and for the past week have been troubled with the kidney complaint, and am just now beginning to realize my awful fate unless I turn over a new leaf."
Charles Taze Russell's defense to this Elmer Bryan charge of LIES and DECEPTION can be easily summarized as, "The End justifies the Means". The Allegheny Congregation Judicial Committee lambasted Elmer Bryan, and declared Pastor Russell's methods to be "Legitimate and praiseworthy."
Pastor Russell explained that the pseudonym "Mrs. C. B. Lemuels" had "represented" his wife, Maria Russell, and that "C. B. Lemuels" was a Hebrew name which Russell had interpreted to mean, "a son of God, after Christ". The obvious underlying meaning of such was either lost on or ignored by the Allegheny Congregation Judicial Committee.
In the next June 1894 issue of ZWT, Russell selected and published two Letters From Readers which praised his past marketing efforts back in 1887, including one letter which interestingly stated, "I am one that was caught by the "Mrs. Lemuels" advertisement, and am still thanking God for the light thus received. The conspirators must have failed to read, "Be wise as serpents." (Just as continues in 2016, back in 1894, WatchTower Cult followers do not understand that it is Satan -- not GOD -- whom is forced to rely on trickery, lies, and deception to gather together his "chosen". We challenge any Jehovah's Witness reading this to deny that they have ever used "trickery, lies, and deception" while attempting to "place" literature door-to-door.)
Elmer Bryan also specified multiple different examples and instances over the years of Russell conspiring to cheat the Post Office out of its proper postage. During his Defense, Russell had the audacity to openly justify past mailings of Watch Tower magazine "binders" using the Post Office's cheapest "book rate", rather than the regular merchandise rate. Russell rationalized that he had converted the binders from "merchandise" to "books" by intentionally mailing those binders with one copy of the latest ZWT magazine being inserted inside such.
Bryan's 1894 charges made absolutely no dent in the shady way that Pastor Russell conducted future Watch Tower Society business after Bryan and his fellow "conspirators" were disfellowshipped. During the early 1900s, Pastor Russell brought all the way from Waco, Texas, a Russellite husband-wife couple to work at the Pittsburgh Bible House. Interestingly, instead of living at the Bible House, or even at one of Russell's apartment houses which housed other Bethelites, that new Bethelite couple lived with a local Pittsburgh Russellite couple. After living for exactly one year in Pittsburgh, that Bethelite Man from Texas applied, successfully tested, and received a fulltime job, at the Pittsburgh Post Office. That Russellite Man continued working full-time at the Pittsburgh Post Office right up until Pastor Russell relocated his religion business out of Pittsburgh, to Brooklyn, in early 1909. At the exact same time that Russell and the WatchTower Society left Pittsburgh, that Waco, Texas Russellite Couple also packed their bags and left to a place unknown. We found them three years later working as WatchTower evangelists out in California. Undoubtedly, that Bethelite/Russellite Man was purposefully inserted into the Pittsburgh Post Office for multiple reasons, not the least of which was to facilitate the mailing of certain WatchTower materials at the cheaper/cheapest second-class rate, which should have been charged the higher third-class rate.

Pastor Russell likely had been motivated to attempt this bolder form of "industrial espionage" against the Post Office only after Russell had already successfully done so in a lessor and more troublesome form. Previously, for 24+ months, Pastor Russell had taken advantage of the conversion to Russellism of the Postmaster of a small, rural Pennsylvania Post Office located about 60 miles outside Allegheny. That Russellite Postmaster had been sufficiently stupid to author, and Russell had been sufficiently egotistical to publish in one of the issues of the WATCHTOWER magazine (Russell's readers were perfectly aware of Russell's ongoing battle with the Post Office, and Russell wanted them to know that he was still somehow sticking it to the Post Office), a Letter from that Postmaster in which he admitted having mailed out 59,000 copies of OLD THEOLOGY QUARTERLY magazines and other literature for the WatchTower Society within the previous 2+ years -- including mailings to multiple foreign countries.

We assume that readers fully understand the significance of the Post Office to Russell's religion business. Pastor Russell was likely the most hated person at the Pittsburgh Post Office. Almost from the start of his religion business, Pastor Russell and the Post Office began a running battle over rates, and Russell almost always WON -- but Russell did so "by hook or by crook".

When Russell's complaints to the Pittsburgh Postmaster did not get Russell whatever decision that Russell wanted, Russell went over the head of the Pittsburgh Postmaster to the Postmaster-General in Washington D.C. When Russell did not get the decision that he wanted form the Postmaster-General, Russell started mail campaigns in the pages of the WATCHTOWER magazine, in which Russell would provide multiple sample letters for his Russellite followers to copy and mail to the Postmaster-General, then later to their Congressmen and Senators, and eventually even to the President of the United States. When these honest methods failed Russell, Pastor Russell simply CHEATED the Post Office.

Few people familiar with the OLD THEOLOGY QUARTERLY "magazines" actually understand why they were what they were -- tracts, pamphlets, and booklets of widely varying sizes. What OTQs were -- was a POSTAL RATE SCAMOTQs were miscellaneous WatchTower literature published in the "disguise" of a regular quarterly "magazine", so that the hoped-for later small quantity orders of such could be mailed out at the CHEAPER/CHEAPEST second-class regular periodical rate, rather than at the higher third-class rate. While the initial mailing of one copy to a subscriber could rightfully be mailed using second-class postage, later mailings of small bulk quantities of original printings and any quantities of later reprints should have been mailed at the higher third-class rate, but they were not.

Pastor Russell pulled the same SCAM with soft-cover DIVINE PLANs and THY KINGDOM COMEs -- despite being repeatedly caught by the Pittsburgh Post Office. Pastor Russell and the Post Officel went back and forth on both these two softcovers and the OTQs, with there being time periods that Russell won out and could legally mail such as second-class matter. However, Pastor Russell continued doing so even during the time periods when such was not legal. Years later, when the Post Office finally permanently stopped mailing these softcover BOOKS out at the cheaper periodical rate, Russell simply stopped publishing the two books as softcovers, and started publishing them in magazine format. That still violated the rules for second-class matter, because such were not part of a regular periodical series, but since the books "looked" like then semi-monthly WATCHTOWER magazines, postal workers never caught on to what Russell was pulling. By then, Pastor Russell had his own personal "secret agent" inside the Pittsburgh Post Office, who would either allow through the improperly classified mailings or warn/tip Russell as how to get such by other Pittsburgh postal employees.

Back in February 1896, the U.S. Attorney General's office had issued this response to an inquiry from the Postmaster-General's office, which was responding to yet another "Appeal" from Pastor Russell of the Pittsburgh Postmaster's refusal to mail certain literature at second-class rates:

"I think you were clearly right in excluding from the mails as second-class matter volumes 1 and 3 of the "Millenial Dawn Series," published by the Tower Publishing Company at Allegheny, Pa., under the title of "Zion's Watch Tower." Those volumes have all the insignia of "books" and not numbers in the series of a periodical publication. Here is a plain attempt to evade the law. Calling these volumes "Special issues of Zion's Watch Tower, representing Nos. 3, 4, 5, vol. 1886, and No. 6, vol. 12, 1891," respectively, does not change their character. They are "books" in every sense of the word, and hence chargeable with the third-class rate of postage. ...

"The company has issued, also, and claims the right to send through the mails at the pound rate what it terms "Extra No. 31, November 1, 1895," of the "Old Theology Quarterly;" ... which is beyond question a circular only, and should be charged with the third-class rate of postage. This is a more palpable evasion of the law than the volumes above mentioned. This circular calls these volumes "books," and is manifestly intended to advertise them to the public. ... ."

We don't know what happened, but after receiving this Advisory Opinion from the U.S. Attorney General's office, the Postmaster-General ignored such and granted Russell his Appeal. However, there were unknown events which years later caused this decision to be reversed. Russell eventually stopped his Appeals and his Letter writing campaigns, and instead, Russell initiated "industrial espionage" -- first with his own out-of-town Postmaster, and then more conveniently, with his own local Postal Clerk. After all, the"Faithful and Discreet Slave" ALWAYS got his way -- either by HOOK, or by CROOK.


Bayonne, N.J.
July 10, 1902


[To the] Editor of Printers' Ink:

Hid away among the offices of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society, in the Bible House, Arch Street, Pittsburg, Pa., is an individual who, so far as nerve of the nerviest description is concerned, holds the record for the United States.

Newspapers, big and little, all over the country have recently received a circular letter from this Society in which it is explained that a Christian gentleman has been so impressed with an article entitled, "A Criticism of the Presbyterian Creed Revision", that he has donated $3,000 which will be distributed amongst the newspapers which publish the article during July, upon the following conditions:

-- $100 to the dally showing largest circulation containing this article. 
-- $100 to the secular weekly, semi weekly or tri- weekly showing largest circulation containing this article.
-- $100 to the Presbyterian weekly showing largest circulation containing this article.
-- $100 to the religious weekly other than Presbyterian showing largest circulation containing this article.
-- $100 to the monthly, religious or secular, showing largest circulation containing this article.
-- $1,250 to the fifty (50) dailies showing largest circulation out of first 100 containing this article, applying and giving proofs of publication.
-- $1,250 to the fifty (50) religious and secular weeklies showing largest circulation out of first 100 applying and giving proofs of publication. 

It is required that tbe article be published in the journal's usual form, type, etc., and that either introducing or concluding it the following reference shall appear, together with any other comment you may choose to make, pro or con:
The following (or preceding) article originated with the Bible and Tract Society, of Allegheny, Pa. The reading of it so impressed a Christian gentleman that he volunteered $3,000 to be divided as premiums amongst the leading journals first publishing it to their readers. It Is from tbe pen of the widely-known author of "Millennial Dawn", of which over a million copies are in circulation, and the demand still growing. This Society has issued another timely tract, entitled, "Calamities -- Why God Permits Them". It offers free samples to our readers, on postal card application to above address.
The article referred to is set in brevier, 20 ems wide, and 76 inches in length. There is also [i]nclosed a circulation statement blank to be filled out, sworn to and returned to the Society. At the head of the letter paper used by the Society appears the cut of an open Bible with these extracts printed above and below: "Sanctify Them Through Thy Truth" and "Thy Word is Truth". These extracts are evidently for the benefit of the circulation manager. Yours truly. R. M. Stickle


Chicago, Illinois
November 14, 1904



Flood Leading Newspapers at Clergyman's Request
With Requests for Insertion of Latter's Sermons Expounding New Faith

Finding the staid and dignified methods of the past for the spread of religion too antiquated for this rapid commercial age, the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society has adopted a brilliant scheme, devised by Pastor C. T. Russell of Allegheny, Pa, head of the organization, for furthering its work upon modern lines.

Appreciating the enormous advantages of liberal advertising, Pastor Russell has developed a press agent's device, which has met with results hardly anticipated by its projectors. Like too many other good things, the plan came to grief through being overdone, and its failure can only be attributed to the zeal of the members in executing their leader's bidding.

All of the great daily papers throughout the country, and some not so great, have received within the past week scores of postal cards, bearing apparently innocent requests from "Constant Reader," "Daily Admirer of Your Valuable Paper," "Vox Populi," and other writers, for the publication of Pastor Russell's sermons.

The letters were the response of the clergyman's devoted followers to an appeal by the latter to his flock at their convention in St. Louis recently, and since repeated in personal letters, that they besiege the editors of their favorite dailies with requests for the publication of his discourses. 

Thinks Plan Legitimate. 

That Pastor Russell had no conception he had erred is evidenced by the following excerpt from an editorial in the society's official organ, of which he is editor:

"In re justification, we believe that quite a good many Christians were born in a justified condition, and that the sentiments of their hearts always were for righteousness, and that therefore they cannot accuse themselves of having sinned willfully, nor feel such great contrition as those who have been living in sin in alienation from God. Nor should they. They are already the Lord's. and for them to be converted (turned around) would mean to turn away from the Lord. The editor is one of this class."

When at first one or two postal cards a week were received in The Inter Ocean office, asking that the sermons be included in the schedule, a natural interest was aroused. But when finally the campaign reached a climax, with seventeen postals in one day, all couched in nearly the same phraseology, the interest changed to suspicion as to the spontaneity of the interest shown.

Upon investigation, it was learned that, not content with the results of his appeal made in St. Louis, in the current issue of the "Zion's Watch Tower and Herald of Christ's Presence," Pastor Russell further urges the press bureau to keep busy. 

"Our general advice is that papers of large circulation and good character be preferred in every case," he says. "If you have written a postal card to one paper and it has not responded, it could do no hurt to write similarly to another to whichever you prefer. Where papers are obtainable regularly at a news stand, it is not necessary to promise a year's subscription; it would be enough to say that you would get the papers of your newsdealer and extra copies of those issues containing these discourses." 

Similar Form Followed. 

The usual form of the postal card was as follows:

"To the Editor: The sermons of Pastor C. T. Russell of Allegheny, Pa., are being widely read and published. If you could secure his Sunday sermons for publication in your paper it would be greatly appreciated by me and many others and would increase the circulation of your paper."

Pastor Russell has not, thus far, furnished any information as to whether he will furnish his matter in manuscript or whether it can be had in matrices or plate, nor has he advertised any column rates for the service.

The Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society originated with Pastor Russell In 18[81], and is called by the members a "creedless church." ... Denying that they are Adventists, (yet, they do precisely what Adventists do and say) they maintain that the millennium will be realised in 1914, after a period of anarchy unimaginable. For them no future punishment exists. They believe that with the coming of the millennium mankind then upon earth will return to all the purity of motive and lite lost through Adam's fall, with the advantage of all the modern improvements of the world's civilized progress. ... The membership in Chicago is about 130 persons, ... .


August 1, 1912

Perhaps to many it may have seemed a very portentous thing when the International Bible Students' Association in conference at Washington [D.C.] solemnly voted to abolish hell. The press associations at least were sufficiently impressed with the action to scatter the news of it all over the country. But when one learns that the International Bible Students' Association is nothing but a group of Pastor Russell's Millennial Dawnites, the impressiveness of the news quickly filters out. "Pastor" Russell's talent for dignifying a small thing with a big name approaches the quality of an art, and appears to be the point where his eccentric orbit swings closest to genius.


October 31, 1912
Letter To The Editor


I have met not a few who were convinced that the "Brooklyn Tabernacle" was the one that Dr. Talmage formerly preached in, as well as some who believed that "Pastor" Russell had suceeded Spurgeon in his "London Tabernacle".

Mr. Ellis might have gone farther and charged "Pastor" Russell with deliberate deception, to which many newspaper publishers could testify. Some eighteen months ago, as editor of Christian Manhood (St. Louis), I received a letter from the [Pastor Russell Lecture Bureau] enclosing for publication a series of articles descriptive of the trip to the Pacific coast which [Russell] then contemplated. They were marked "Released" for certain dates, weeks in advance of [Russell's] trip. And yet, in every instance, the articles began with reference to the fine weather, the crowds that flocked to hear [Russell], the many prominent citizens, including city officials, who were in the audience, the way in which people crowded about [Russell] after the service to congratulate him, and other minute and circumstantial details which were unqualifiedly false, unless the "Pastor" can prove a claim to the prophetic office. An alleged Christian teacher who can descend to such claptrap ought to be exposed as widely as possible. George T. Coxhead.


The Evening Times
Grand Forks, North Dakota
December 22, 1913


We have just been favored with a copy of the Aurora, Ill., Beacon News which we note from the return mark on the envelope comes from the "Pastor Russell Lecture Bureau" of New York City. On glancing over the enclosure to see why we were thus favored, we discovered -- well marked to attract attention -- an editorial entitled "Pastor Russell's Sermons." The purpose of the article is that the publishers of the paper were asked by local pastors to have the word "Advertisement" printed after the Russell sermons if that matter was paid for as advertising matter. The editor states that the stuff is not paid for as advertising matter, but that on the contrary, the paper pays for the privilege of running it, just as it would pay a reporter to go out and gather news.

Any newspaper man who pays money for the privilege of running the Russell sermons is too innocent and unsophisticated for this sordid world. He is paying money for the privilege of doing what a good many others receive money for doing, for it is a fact, that these alleged sermons are actually paid for at advertising rates by several papers in order to give publicity to their author and aid him in the promotion of his financial enterprises, in which unsuspecting people have sunk considerable money. Russell sends out his literature so worded as to convey the impression that he is the pastor in charge of the Brooklyn Tabernacle made famous by the noble but erratic Talmage. Russell has no connection with that church, and efforts to ascertain with what church he is connected have failed. The stuff he sends out as sermons, and for which he pays money to a few papers, and which he has succeeded in working off on others for money paid by them, are not sermons at all. Instead of being delivered before thrilled throngs of thousands, as is stated in the introductions, they were never delivered at all, but are written and sent out in batches long before their date of publication, thus creating a false impression again. Their contents is twaddle. Who so is deceived is not wise. 


The Herald and Review
Decatur, Illinois
July 30, 1914

"Photo-drama of Creation" Furthers Teachings of Brooklyn Preacher (edited)

Pastor C. T. Russell, the Brooklyn Tabernacle man, whose beliefs and writings are being spread in Decatur by the moving-picture film method, is arousing considerable criticism here partly because of the fact that the high school auditorium is being used for exhibiting his films, termed the "Photo-drama of Creation."

While it is true that there is considerable opposition to the beliefs of Russell and his followers, the chief objection seems to lie in the idea that any religious teachings should be forwarded with the aid of the conveniences and space afforded by the local school's auditorium. The usual attitude has been to allow only meetings of non-religious, public character in the building. In this instance, on the representations of L. H. Ostrander, 1204 North Morgan street, the school board at a special meeting granted permission to the representatives of the International Bible Students' Association, as Pastor Russell's followers term themselves, to use the auditorium, upon payment of $140, or $10 a night, for two weeks. ... 

It is the understanding of Superintendent Engleman and Mrs. Kemper of the school board, that Pastor Russell's connection with the film shows was not fully understood when the school board granted permission to use the auditorium. The films were represented as being highly educational, and this formed the chief reason for admitting those in charge of the school building. 

"I knew nothing of Pastor Russell's connection with the organization producing the moving pictures now being shown in the high school auditorium," said Superintendent J. O. Engleman, ... "Mr. Ostrander, of the I.B.S.A., came to me several weeks ago, just before I started for St. Paul, asking my consent for the use of the auditorium for the pictures. He recommended them highly as being both educational and religious. I told him that I had no authority in leasing the auditorium and suggested that he ask the Board of Education. This was done while I was away. Mr Ostrander did not mention Pastor Russell's name during his talk to me. He said he had seen the pictures in St. Louis, and thought so much of them that he wanted them here." 

When asked whether the persons conducting the pictures would be refused the use of the auditorium for the full time, Mr. Engleman replied: "If it is proven that the auditorium was leased under false pretense, I believe we could take it away from them. They have, I understand, paid $140 for the use of the auditorium." 

Mrs. C. G. Kemper, member of the Board of Education, said last night that she was not present at the meeting in which permission was given the picture men the use of the high school auditorium. "I did not know until recently that Pastor Russell was connected with the enterprise. So far as I am concerned, I wish they had never gained permission to use the building." 

R. R. Montgomery and A. A. Jones were the two members of the Board of Education who were present at the meeting at the time permission for the use of the building was given the movie men. Mr. Montgomery is out of the city at present, and Mr. Jones could not be located last night. . . 

The lectures are entirely free. Every effort is made, however, to spread the literature and dispose of the books written by Pastor Russell. Cards for signatures are sometimes distributed. The books are very reasonable in price. A section of the International Bible Students' Association has been organized and has been holding regular meetings in Decatur for some time.

Upon a request by The Herald, Rev. J W. McDonald, pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church submitted the following statement, explaining the attitude of the Ministerial Association on Pastor Russell and his method of spreading his teachings: 

"Many people seem to think that the pictures and lectures being given at the high school building are endorsed by the churches of Decatur and by the Board of Education. This impression is absolutely false. The purpose of these lectures is to advertise 'Pastor' Russell and his books. No church in Decatur would endorse this man, his methods, or his teaching. He is a man of somewhat the same type as Alexander Dowie. He is a pastmaster in advertising himself.

"However, he has been so thoroughly exposed by the Brooklyn Daily Eagle and other papers that he has taken to the habit of indirectly promoting himself. He calls his movement, 'The International Bible Students' Association.' He makes large use of the word 'Inter-denominational'. Thus, he has deceived many people and many newspapers. The circular he is distributing in Decatur this week says: 'Unsecta-rian classes are formed for mutual help. Present church membership can be retained while attending these classes.'

"Now the teaching of Russell is of the rankest sectarianism. Of course he has a right to teach anything he wishes, but the pure food law, or some other law, should compel him to give it the right label. He has no right to deceive people. I am only concerned that the people of Decatur know what they are getting. Let us all understand that Russell is one of the shrewdest advertisers in America, and that what he wants is to sell his books.

"He claims that these books practically take the place of the Bible. On page 295 of his Watch Tower, of the issue, of September 15, 1910, it is written concerning his books: 'If the six volumes of "Scripture Studies" are practically the Bible, topically arranged, with Bible proof text, given, we might not improperly name the volumes "The Bible in an Arranged Form." That is to say, they are not merely comments on the Bible, but they are practically the Bible itself. ... Furthermore, not only do we find that people cannot see the divine plan in studying in the Bible by itself, but we see also that if anyone lays the "Scripture Studies" aside, even after he has used them, after he has become familiar with them, after he has read them for 10 years, if he then lays them aside and ignores them and goes to the Bible alone, though he has understood his Bible for 10 years, our experience shows that within two years, he goes into darkness. On the other hand, if he had merely read the 'Scripture Studies' with their references, and had not read a page of the Bible as such, he would be in the light at the end of the two years, because he would have the light of the Scriptures." 

EDITOR'S NOTE: As evidence that "sticking their finger in the eye" of anyone who refused to kowtow to the WatchTower Society did not just start in the 1930s-40s, in April 1915, "Pastor" Russell scheduled a trip to Decatur, and had his local henchman, presumably "Mr. Ostrander", appear before the Board of Education and request use of the high school auditorium. DENIED!!!


Clarksburg, WV
March 22, 1915

In the New York Herald, February 22, "Pastor" Russell's sermon starts off as follows:
Duluth, Minn., February 21. Pastor Russell preached here twice today. The large auditorturn was filled to overflowing and hundreds were turned away. ... ...
The edition carrying this advertisement went to press on or about midnight of February 21 -- the very day "Pastor" Russell" was hanging the S. R. O. sign on the Duluth tabernacle fifteen hundred miles away. It was Sunday, and chances are that "Pastor" Russell's interesting two column advertisement was delivered to the Herald sometime Saturday, the day before the mad throng stormed his Duluth "services." It is customary for the Monday advertising forms to be made up and virtually closed Saturday afternoon.

Now, unless "Pastor" Russell's press agent telegraphed this introduction to the Heraldthe statement at the beginning of the "sermon" is obvious twaddle, and the rest of it may be appraised accordingly. The "International Bible Students Association" states that "Pastor" Russell's sermons appear weekly "in approximately fifteen hundred newspapers in the United States, Canada, Great Britain, South Africa, Ausralia, and Scandinavia, in four languages."

Was this interesting message from Duluth ticked off by telegraph and cable in four languages to fifteen hundred newspapers all around the globe, or is it on a par with "Pastor" Russell's world-famous prediction made in 1889:
"the final end of the kingdoms of this world and the full of the kingdom of God will be accomplished by the end of A. D. 1914"?
Patent medicine advertising isn't the only quackery that seeks to crawl in under the tent of respectability via the newspaper advertising column.


Records from the late 1890s through early 1900s indicate that Charles Taze Russell had acquired the controlling interest in the BRAZILIAN TURPENTINE COMPANY LIMITED from its local founder, and began personally managing the company himself from Watch Tower Society headquarters. Russell continued to operate this business for many years, including obtaining a Canadian product trademark in 1905 and a U.S. product trademark in 1907. This business owned at least one railroad tankcar. Pastor Russell eventually started running classified newspaper advertisements in various U.S. cities soliciting salespersons for this company's multiple turpentine based household and commercial-industrial products.
The Silica Brick Company was yet another typical example of the "midas touch" of that financial genius named Charles Taze Russell (see comments about Russell's real estate investment modus operandi and prowess on next page). Around 1894-95, Russell purchased an already going brick mining/manufacturing business, which was located roughly 75 miles from Allegheny in an area where raw materials were then plentiful, and where multiple other competing brick manufacturers were then already operating. In fact, the man from whom Russell purchased this business soon opened a competing mining/manufacturing operation -- just as he had previously done to another purchaser when he had opened the location he had sold to Pastor Russell. Pastor Russell's sales office at WatchTower Society headquarters generated few if any sales, and the combination mining and manufacturing location soon had to be shut down. The site remained closed. Outcome unknown.
In June 1896, the state of West Virginia granted a charter of incorporation to THE H. F. BIGGAM COMPANY, of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. This early "rent-to-own" business was formed by eight incorporators who lived in Pittsburgh and Allegheny -- including Charles Taze Russell, who lent his name and reputation, along with the name and reputation of Tower Publishing Company, to the shady operation. Authorized capital was $500,000.00. Paid in capital was only $1000.00. The stated legal purpose of this corporation was to "sell" furniture, carpet, and other home furnishings -- but actually, the business model was to "lease" inventory on "installment payment plan" to poor persons unable to purchase such items for cash. More interestingly, at the same time, this new corporation also attempted to sell stock in the company -- also sold on credit and installment payments -- which would permit customers to receive sales discounts and/or sales commissions on their purchases of home furnishings, along with a claimed 10% return on their stock investment. Within one year, poor underwriting of clientele had this company swamped with repossessions, and in trouble with its own creditors. The company soon was forced into bankruptcy, which was finalized by 1900.
In 1897, Charles Taze Russell was assigned one-half interest in a "device for converting reciprocatory into rotary motion", which had been invented by a Kansan follower of Russell.
By the late 1890s, Charles Taze Russell also owned $10,000.00 stock in a Pittsburgh bank whose name has escaped us. Was it the Third National Bank of Allegheny???
At some point, the WatchTower Society became a jobber for "Brown's Wonder Salve". Colporteurs and other followers could purchase such at wholesale prices from the WatchTower Society for their own use or resale until at least 1917.
C. T. RUSSELL v. MARGARETTA HUNTER was a January 1894 civil lawsuit which Charles Taze Russell filed against a single, 40 year-old Pittsburgh female. Requested "damages" were only $275.00 (nearly $10,000.00 in 2016 dollars), thus too small to be anything of real significance. Subject of this civil lawsuit is unknown and puzzling. "1894" was after Russell had ceased retailing. When Hunter died in 1910, she had been living with her widowed mother, which possibly eliminates Hunter as a "tenant" of Russell. Hunter was from a well known Pittsburgh family, and was described as one of Pittsburgh's long-time schoolteachers and school administrators (whom were required to maintain a scandal-free lifestyle in that time period). Hunter does not appear to be an ideal defendant for a "Minister" to be suing in 1894.
Starting in 1898, and ever since, the WatchTower Society has publicly proclaimed that Charles Taze Russell "donated" the "Bible House", located at 56-60 (aka 610-614) Arch Street, to the WatchTower Society, on April 1, 1898. THAT IS A LIE! In fact, Charles Taze Russell could not have donated the Bible House real property to the WatchTower Society, because such a transfer would have required the signature of the estranged Maria Russell. Thus, in order to CHEAT Maria Russell out of her dower rights to the real property located at 56-60 Arch Street, Charles Taze Russell contrived an elaborate FRAUDULENT scheme.
By November 1897, the Russells' acrimonious marriage had reached its breaking point, and Maria Russell had moved out of the Bible House, and had moved in with her recently widowed sister, Emma H. Russell. Charles Taze Russell immediately took steps to fulfill his 1895 threat that if Maria refused to agree to separate in exchange for their Clifton Avenue home, then he would make certain that she received NOTHING.
Not every specific detail and date are known, but in December 1897, Russell first mortgaged the "Bible House" at 56-60 Arch Street for $15,000.00 (nearly $530,000.00 in 2016 dollars -- HALFHILL). That five-year mortgage was interestingly held by the Public Library of Philadelphia.
In January 1898, Charles Taze Russell, likely counseled by one or more attorneys, conceived a scheme to defraud Maria Russell out of her rights in the "Bible House". Beginning the first week of February 1898, "Pastor" Russell began placing daily legal notices in local newspapers declaring that he would not be financially responsible for any credit given in his name to anyone but himself.
On March 1, 1898, Charles Taze Russell, with his signature only, deeded the "Bible House" real estate (lot was only 45 ft wide and 60 ft deep, and Bible House only occupied front of lot) to the WatchTower Society, and on or about April 1, 1898, Russell donated the personalty assets of Tower Publishing Company to the WatchTower Society.
Then, in March 1898, "Pastor" Russell intentionally refused to pay a charge account which had been long established with a local Allegheny Merchant, which Maria Russell was continuing to use to purchase groceries and other necessities. On March 18, 1898, a lawsuit was filed against "Pastor" Russell for the outstanding balance of $178.00.INTERESTINGLY, the Named Plaintiff in that lawsuit was NOT the Allegheny Merchant, but rather was an Allegheny Attorney acting on behalf of that Merchant. Apparently, in order to guarantee that Merchant's cooperation in this immoral scheme, the good "Pastor" Russell had propositioned that Merchant with a way to keep the Merchant's name out of the newspapers and even out of most of the court documents. Russell likely even footed the bill for the lawsuit against himself.
"Pastor" Russell did not even answer the lawsuit, and quickly lost by default. The Plaintiff-Attorney then "attached" the "Bible House" for payment of the $178.00 judgment. Russell not only did absolutely nothing to legally resist the attachment and the "Sheriff's Sale", but even proactively waived inquisition and condemnation so that matters could proceed as fast as possible. Sometime in April-May 1898, the Watch Tower Society was the sole bidder of $50.00 at the "Sheriff's Sale". Russell and his attorneys thought that the Sheriff's Sale and Russell's deed would clear any interest that Maria Russell had in the property. WRONG.
After all was said and done, the co-conspirators on the Board of Directors of the WatchTower Society appraised Russell's"donation" of all assets of Tower Publishing Company, including the building and land that had been purchased at the Sheriff's Sale, as worth $186,000.00 (nearly $6,500,000.00 in 2016 dollars -- HALFHILL). In addition to the mortgage on the real estate, the WatchTower Society also assumed eight "conditional loans" made to Tower Publishing Company, totaling $6966.65, from seven female Russellites and one WatchTower Pilgrim. Most of the "conditional loans" were expected to gradually become "donations". Russell was eventually credited with 16,403.365 voting shares in the WatchTower Society (per the one share for every $10.00 donation rule).
Later, during the Russell Separation-Divorce Trial, the Court of Common Pleas in Pittsburgh declared the following regarding Russell's multiple efforts to "donate" all of his assets to the Watch Tower Society in his attempt to keep Maria Russell from receiving a penny, including the "Bible House" scheme: "The purpose of this whole transaction was to deprive the wife of her dower interest and was a FRAUD on her. ... and the subsequent donations [to the Watch Tower Society] are plainly made with the same reckless disregard of the rights of the wife, and with intent to defeat her of any interest or claim she might have for her support. ... ... It has been adjudicated against him that his property was disposed of by him in FRAUD of his wife's rights, ... ."
Years later, Judge Rutherford alleged that some years after the 1898 shenanigans that "a" MORTGAGE on the Bible House was foreclosed (in order to make absolutely certain that Maria Russell's dower rights were totally extinguished). The Bible House allegedly was sold at an unknown second time, and the purchaser allegedly was NOT Russell nor the WatchTower Society(the 1897 mortgage may have been purchased from the Public Library of Philadelphia by a sycophant, or more likely, a second mortgage was created later). Why dumbass Rutherford would spill the beans on this later legal incident is unknown, because at some point all these multiple legal shenanigans are meaningless -- EXCEPT to demonstrate that Charles Taze Russell, Joseph F. Rutherford, and the WatchTower Society were/are SATAN'S EQUALS when it comes to SUBTERFUGE. In any event, as we have revealed on Page 2, in 1911, Russell's "straw-man" George Raymond traded the Bible House and other Russell properties for ... well, go look.
Charles Taze Russell and the Board of Directors of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society also committed FRAUD by issuing Russell 1200 voting shares in the corporation in exchange for the Bible House equity, because the Watch Tower Society became the legal owner of the Bible House via their purchase of the Bible House at the Sheriff's sale -- not via Russell's alleged FRAUDULENT donation. In fact, this very act by the Watch Tower Society Board of Directors was a public acknowledgment that the Merchant's lawsuit had been a FRAUDULENT conspiracy to further DEFRAUD Maria Russell. "O' what a tangled web" Satan's henchmen can conceive.
In February 1899, Pastor Russell transferred to the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society around $48,000.00 (roughly $1,600,000.00 in 2016 dollars) worth of stock in the Brazilian Turpentine Company Limited, the California Asphaltum Company, and a yet to be identified coal company. Russell likely received around 4800 voting shares in the WatchTower Society.
In April 1900, Pastor Russell transferred to the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society 12 miscellaneous real estate holdings valued at around $47,500.00. The WBTS Board of Directors valued those assets a $45,390.00, and credited Pastor Russell with 4539 voting shares in the WatchTower Society.
In November 1902, Pastor Russell transferred to the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society oil stock valued at around $6000.00, for which he likely received 600 voting shares in the WatchTower Society.
In June 1896, Charles Taze Russell legally formed in Pennsylvania the UNITED STATES INVESTMENT COMPANY LIMITED for his own personal use as an investment holding company. Of the $1000.00 paid-in capital, Pastor Charles Taze Russell "officially" contributed $990.00, with henchmen Ernest C. Henninges (Rose Ball's husband) and John A. Bohnet each "officially" contributing $5.00, and serving as the required other two limited partners. Thus, Pastor Russell legally owned 99% of U.S. INVESTMENT CO. LTD.(Of course, Henninges and Bohnet never shelled out a single cent of their own money. Their $5.00, which was $175.00 in today's dollars, was footed by Russell. Neither did Henninges or Bohnet have any say-so in the affairs of USICL.)
However, over the years, Pastor Russell "publicly" used the names of a constantly changing list of WatchTower Society Officers, Directors, and other BETHELITES, as being the owners and/or managers of USICL. Notably, although Ernest Henninges eventually disassociated from Russell around 1908-09, we have found no indication that any change was ever made to the legal ownership of USICL, which was finally dissolved in June 1916, shortly before Russell's unforeseen death. Notably, Russell kept as much about his financial transactions -- particularly those of USICL -- as secret as possible from WatchTower HQ staffers -- even the Secretary/Treasurers of the Pennsylvania and New York corporations. (This apparently led to many legal oversights. As late as the latter 1960s, in the states of Pennsylvania and Florida, multiple owners of real estate previously owned by USICL were being forced to file lawsuits naming as plaintiff the defunct USICL in order to quiet title to their properties.)
Shortly after the formation of USICL in 1897, in what may have been the original investment for which purpose USICL had been formed, Pastor Russell used his holding company to purchase (price unknown) a 25 acre factory site at Hammondville, Pennsylvania, on which had set, since 1892, an only partially completed steel rolling mill. That property was purchased from the Hammondville Improvement Company, of which Russellite realtor William Giffin was the "Secretary"(Giffen and his partners had purchased the site in 1892 at a Sheriff's sale.) It is not known whether Russell initially purchased the property to "flip", or whether he wanted to form a steel rolling business. In any event, despite the fact that Russell had not improved on this property, he reportedly purchased even more of Hammondville around 1909 (See next page. It is possible that the factory site was swapped for the second site of mainly residential properties.) It is not known when, or to whom, or for how much, these Hammondville properties were eventually sold.
After Charles Taze Russell and Maria Russell physically separated in 1897, Pastor Russell found a new use for USICL -- hiding real estate and other investments made both on Russell's personal behalf and that of Russell's Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society, which Pastor Russell did not want Maria Russell, Maria's attorneys, Russell's followers, and the general public to know about. (Russell continued to dispose of real estate that was still titled in his personal name -- selling a house and lot in January 1900.)
However, that "veil" of anonymity gradually disappeared as the connection between Russell and USICL was revealed in the publicity surrounding Russell's 1903-09 Divorce Case, and even more so during Russell's later lawsuits against various newspapers. Starting around 1908-09, when Pastor Russell was forced to flee Pittsburgh to escape the reach of Maria's attorneys and the Pittsburgh courts, Russell was forced to secretly do his real estate and other investment business under the personal names of sycophants such as Clayton J. Woodworth, George B. Raymond (see next page), and others, as well as other corporate entities formed in their names.
Initially, from 1896 until around 1902, Pastor Russell used the offices of real estate agents Gault & Giffen as the address for USICL. Russellite William Giffen also was presented publicly as "Secretary" of USICL, although there is no indication that such office was formalized. We further suspect that Pastor Russell may have used realtor and Russellite William Giffen to keep secret other real estate sales and purchases which will never be uncovered. (1896 was an extraordinary year for CTR for some unknown reason. In addition to other notables, in 1896, Gault & Giffen "sold" for CTR 500 acres in Florida, two houses in Chicago, and two houses and six lots in Pittsburgh -- all to one company whose business had nothing to do with real estate. Hmmm!!!)
Around 1902, Pastor Russell brought into the Bible House as a BETHELITE, George B. Raymond, who was an Insurance Agent, Real Estate Agent, and Attorney from Binghamton, New York. The mailing address for USICL was then moved to the Bible House from around 1902 until 1904, when Raymond appears to have temporarily returned to New York. Then, when the Russells' alimony/support proceedings got hotter around 1905, the mailing address was moved to the private residence of BETHELITE Albert E. Burgess. It seemed to disappear from public listings thereafter.
Typically, in the 1911.13 edition of the BIBLE STUDENTS MONTHLY, the always deceitful "satan", Pastor Russell, was quoted telling this OBFUSCATION and LIE about the UNITED STATES INVESTMENT COMPANY LIMITED:
"It is a little 'Holding Company' of $1000 capital. All business people will understand. It is perfectly legal every way. I was one of the incorporators in the interest of the Bible and Tract Society. I have not one dollar invested in it; nor have I been even nominally connected with it for many years."
Around 1904-05, Charles Taze Russell via USICL "acquired" 5500 acres of coal property located in eastern Kentucky via "trade" to an unidentified party for unidentified real estate owned by Russell.
See both previous and following sections on both Pages for scattered mentions of USICL.
In April 1905, Charles Taze Russell founded ROSEMONT, MT HOPE and EVERGREEN UNITED CEMETERIES, a corporation, which is still in business today. United Cemeteries actually owns and operates three different cemeteries spread over 18 acres -- Evergreen Cemetery, Mount Hope Cemetery, and Rosemont Cemetery.
The original five paper incorporators were Bethelites Clayton J. Woodworth (see below), John G. Kuehn, John Adam Bohnet, and Pittsburgh Russellites, John Messner and James Geisey. The original Board of Trustees included Charles Taze Russell, the five paper incorporators, Bethelites William Wright and Francis Winton, and Pittsburgh Russellites William Giffen and Harry Guepner. (Researchers should be aware that Harry Guepner is believed to eventually have become a WatchTower Pilgrim during the 1910s. In 1907-08, when wealthy and prominent Russellite Gertrude Seibert's husband, Robert Seibert, founded THE FIRST NATIONAL BANK OF ORBISONIA, Harry Guepner was named "Cashier" -- and for people unfamiliar with the "banking" industry, "Cashier" is NOT a lowly clerical position. Robert Seibert was a busy businessman, and this may indicate that he was more favorable toward Charles Taze Russell and Russellites than some researchers have previously thought, and Seibert's money may have been funding WatchTower projects even prior to his early death.)
However, there were also FOUR other Trustees. Charles Taze Russell somehow managed to "con" the four leaders of the four largest religious denominations in Pittsburgh -- Baptist, Episcopal, Presbyterian, and United Presbyterian -- to accept positions as Trustees (can you guess why).
Certain Russellites have long claimed that this property was actually a farm that Russell inherited from Charles Tays Russell, and that the current Masonic Lodge sits where the Russell farmhouse was originally located. Tays died back in 1865, and to the best of my knowledge, Tays never owned a farm, and there was no farm in his estate. In any event, United Cemeteries reportedly purchased the "Wiegel Farm" from U.S. Investment Co. Ltd., for an unknown amount, which in turn had purchased the property from Bethelite William E. Van Amburgh, for $30,000.00, who had purchased the property for $27,000.00 from the unidentified owner of "Wiegel Farm".
John Adam Bohnet was the "Manager" of this enterprise, and he moved out of WatchTower Society headquarters and operated this business out of a separate office for about a year (again, can you guess why), before then resuming his duties back at WatchTower Society headquarters, and continuing to manage the business from there.
Maria Russell alleged that United Cemeteries was essentially a stock scam. Consistent with the real estate being purchased from U.S. Investment Co Ltd for an unknown amount, plus the fact that Russell publicly appeared to have little or no actual control of this corporation, Maria Russell later claimed that the sales agreement contained terms by which U.S. Investment Co Ltd retained ultimate control of disposition of the realty, other than the piecemeal sale of individual burial lots. Maria also alleged that 90% of the "profits" went to U.S. Investment Co Ltd, while only 10% of "profits" went back to United Cemeteries stockholders. That may have effectively been true, but in actuality, the "gross receipts" of United Cemeteries were split evenly between United Cemeteries and the Watch Tower Society.
Amusingly, on Halloween 1907, a "special" was advertised of six plots for $28 CASH! In April 1908, the cemetery caretaker engaged in a "shoot-out" one night with two thieves attempting to burglarize the stables. A blood trail indicated that he hit one or both of the thieves.

2017? UPDATE: We are forced to acknowledge that we apparently had NOT researched ROSEMONT, MT HOPE and EVERGREEN UNITED CEMETERIES as thoroughly as we should had for purposes of this webpage. We just now stumbled across some more real estate business info that makes perfect sense -- that this farm property originally was much, much larger than the currently reported 18 acres. In mid-1917, "Judge" Rutherford made plans to sub-divide the non-cemetery portions of this property into one-acre residential building lots. However, when word leaked out regarding that new residential subdivision, North Side Catholic Cemetery stepped up and offered to purchase the entire 77 acres from the WatchTower Society -- in December 1917 -- as an addition to its adjoining Saint Philomena's CemeteryUSICL supposedly had transferred the property to WBTS in January 1916 due to USICL being dissolved effective June 1916. However, that deed was not recorded until December 1917 -- during the sale of the property to North Side Catholic Cemetery. Anyone else suspect that December 1917 also was when the deed was written and executed?
What we don't know is under what "business entity" were these residential lots going to be advertised and sold publicly by the WBTS??? It would have taken quite some time to sell those 77 lots, and we can't imagine Rutherford allowing such being advertised and sold under the name of the WBTS or under the name of United Cemeteries. Even if a straw-seller was used for the advertising, there still would have been 77 purchasers who would have eventually disclosed the name of the grantor on their deeds.

For years, Pastor Charles Taze Russell rented out portions of the four-story "Bible House" to whomever would pay him rent -- including an industrial parts manufacturer and multiple clothing manufacturers whose names changed continuously. Even the third story "Bible House Chapel", where Russell's Allegheny congregation held its religious services, would be rented out to other religious groups, and to fraternal and patriotic organizations.
The long-anticipated "Bazaar of Days" took place yesterday afternoon and evening in the Bible House, Arch Street, Allegheny. ... The booths [displaying fundraising items for sale - editor] were all upstairs. Below were 21 supper tables, all in white, and supper was served so long as the guests expressed any desire for it. The entertainment was for the benefit of the building fund of St. John's Episcopal Mission, Woods' Bun, and was in charge of the ladies of the various Episcopal churches of the two cities, ... . -- Pittsburgh Dispatch, April 1892.
Russell even rented to Northside Kindergarten for at least two years, from Fall 1889 until Fall 1891. (If YOU operated the WatchTower Society out of the first floor, would you put a "kindergarten" on top of you for nothing more than a rent check???) Interestingly, after Northside Kindergarten moved out, Mrs. Barto's Private School and Kindergarten replaced it. An otherwise unidentified "Mrs. Barto" became "Principal" of Mrs. Barto's Private School and Kindergarten at that same location from Fall 1891 until ????. Interestingly, Maria Russell's early 40's, widowed sister was named "Selina Barto".(Interestingly, Selina Barto's deceased husband had been an ordained Minister.)

Dating from its establishment, a variety of religious merchandise was kept in stock at the Bible House to attract local walk-in shoppers -- particularly CHRISTMAS and other holiday items. Around 1901-05, a retail bakery/candy store was operated out of Watch Tower HQ on Arch Street by WatchTower Bethelite employees.

WATCH TOWER SOCIETY v. CITY OF ALLEGHENY was the 1904-05 Pennsylvania court case in which Russell challenged the taxability of the "Bible House". The court ruled in Russell's favor -- EXCEPT for those rooms of the Bible House which were "rented" to for-profit businesses, such as the three rooms "rented" to a "restaurant" during 1904. One can only wonder whether that "restaurant" was actually rented to a non-affiliated third party, or whether it was actually a restaurant operated by Russell, but "leased" to a sycophant so as to keep the true ownership of that "for-profit" business hidden from the general public -- which would have kept Russell from disclosing the true ownership to the tax investigators.
-- cha ching --
In January 1908, BETHELITES Francis Winton, age 79, and his wife, Susan Winton, age 76, BOTH died conveniently within two days of each other while living at Charles Taze Russell's BIBLE HOUSE. Francis Winton was a Newfoundland, Canada politician and newspaper publisher, who according to his obituary had later partnered with Horace Greeley at the NEW YORK TRIBUNE. The Wintons are believed to have been "hired" by Russell around 1903-04, when they were in their mid 70s. No known children. Estranged from relatives.
In June 1905, BETHELITE Mary Turner, age 84, died while living at Charles Taze Russell's BIBLE HOUSE. Turner was the childless widow of a deceased Federal Street merchant. No known relatives. No question where went that estate.
In 1902, the unmarried and childless William Campbell, age unknown, died while traveling to Albuquerque, New Mexico, on unknown business. Campbell was a former "Bible House" Bethelite, who received a Bethel funeral preached by Pastor Russell. Charles Taze Russell was named as "Executor" in Campbell's WILL, and the Watch Tower Society was Campbell's sole beneficiary. Assets included a $2000.00 life insurance policy (roughly $65,000.00 in 2016 dollars), and a $2100.00 interest in a Philadelphia drug business.
In 1904-05, Charles Taze Russell made the mistake of both perpetrating a fraud on his religious constituency, and putting that fraud in writing inside the pages of the Watch Tower magazine, where it will last for perpetuity. I'm referring to the SALON SOCIETY -- SOLON JOURNAL -- SALON ASSOCIATION scam, which has been reported on in detail for decades. Here is our summary, which includes both corrections and extremely interesting previously unreported information:
In the December 1, 1904, issue of WATCH TOWER magazine, Russell introduced his Watch Tower readers to a "buying club", called the SOLON ASSOCIATION, which Russell presented as being operated by "honorable and reliable" persons "well-known to us". If Watch Tower subscribers would only also subscribe to the monthly SOLON JOURNAL, SJ subscribers could then purchase through Solon Association a wide variety of household and personal products which were being sold by various national mailorder retailers and wholesalers at the WHOLESALE PRICE normally only given to retailers -- BUT only after Solon members paid a 5% COMMISSION to Salon Association. Russell stated that he was not "soliciting" WATCH TOWER magazine readers on behalf of Salon Association, but rather was merely telling readers about a way that they could save money, so as to "benefit" Watch Tower readers, and now get this -- and those working at Watch Tower Society Headquarters.
SJ subscriptions evidently were slow in coming from Watch Tower readers, because in the January 15, 1905, issue of WATCH TOWER magazine, Russell notified Watch Tower readers that all "paid" 1905 Watch Tower subscribers would receive 4 free issues of the January, February, March, and April Salon Journals. However, in the May 15, 1905 issue of WATCH TOWER magazine, Russell notified Watch Tower readers that the SALON JOURNAL was being discontinued "because its motive was misunderstood or not appreciated".
In fact, Charles Taze Russell's "sheeple" were not ALL as stupid and gullible as he and his headquarters henchmen had thought, so Russell was forced to abort this baby before it brought down his core empire. The word "FRAUD" was stamped all over this business scheme.
First, SALON ASSOCIATION was no ongoing mercantile operation located at Salon, Ohio, as had been insinuated, nor was the SALON JOURNAL an already existing magazine. ALL of the SALON entities were just in the process of being started up to target Russell's religious constituency for additional "milking", and most SALON activities were being conducted right out of Watch Tower Society Headquarters -- THE BIBLE HOUSE.
On paper, Clayton J. Woodworth (yes, that name should ring a bell), who lived in Scranton, Pennsylvania, was listed as President of Solon Association, and Editor of Solon Journal. The other "paper" owner was John G. Kuehn, a prominent Russellite, who lived in Cleveland, Ohio. And, while labor-intensive activities were being performed by "Bethelites" at the "Bible House", Woodworth maintained an off-premises administrative office and maildrop. Interestingly, the highly experienced former marketing executive John Adam Bohnet was brought back to WatchTower HQ from his seven-year assignment in Washington D.C. to assist C.J. Woodworth with the day-to-day running of the Salon Association scheme.
(Clayton J. Woodworth actually may have received many of his "dingbat" pseudo-medical ideas from John Adam Bohnet. J.A. Bohnet had previously worked at WatchTower HQ from 1895-1898 before being sent to Wash D.C. for seven years. Prior to 1896, Bohnet had served as a part-time WatchTower "Pilgrim" on the West Coast for several years, while working for another company. Researchers -- take a look at the "other company" for which Bohnet worked as a "manager" during his seven years in Wash D.C working "on the side" for the WatchTower Society. The obvious question is whether John A. Bohnet had been intentionally "planted" inside that other marketing organization for the purpose of secretly promoting the WatchTower Society amongst its associates. Then, there is the question as to why that company's Wash D.C. branch was infiltrated as opposed to other branches that would have better suited Bohnet's past marketing experience. Was there an "international" reason? The best question of all is why did Bohnet -- a well traveled, experienced corporate "suit" eventually "hide-out" outside Allegheny at Russell's Cemetery Farm portraying himself as a simple "farmer" to the media and general public?)
The manufacturers and other suppliers were also being defrauded. As you may have wondered, manufacturers, wholesalers, and those retailers who also sold wholesale (Sears Roebuck did in those days) did not sell at wholesale rates and ship small quantities to just anyone -- especially individual consumers. The scheme was designed so that Solon Association, via individual members scattered all across the nation, were the "consumers" to which purchases would be drop-shipped by the suppliers. Thus, there was a need for an established retailer which would act as intermediary between Solon members and the manufacturer, wholesaler, or other supplier. What to do? Just make up a second company! To keep suppliers in the dark, a phantom company was formed to conduct business with the suppliers. The name of that second company was LOGAN, LAND & WHITEHOUSE. Just by coincidence, there just so happened to be three secretaries working at WatchTower Society Headquarters named Gabrielle "Gay" Logan, Alice Land (Russell's niece), and Laura Whitehouse. They all later testified in 1907, during one of the alimony proceedings of the Russell Divorce-Separation Trial, that Charles Taze Russell had personally asked each of them individually and privately for their permission to use their names.
Interestingly, during his Divorce trial testimony, Charles Taze Russell -- after first repeatedly denying that he knew anything whatsoever about the various SALON activities -- eventually admitted  that the SOLON ASSOCIATION scheme had been copied from a recently failed similar scheme that had been operated out of NYC across the U.S. -- the Consumers Universal Supply Company. Supposedly, one of more Russellites, whom Russell did not identify, had "connections" to that scheme, and had learned from that failure how to make the scheme work. In fact, an "attachment" in the amount of $520.00 ($16,000.00 in 2016 dollars) was filed in New York City, in December 1904, against the Consumers Universal Supply Company, and guess who was the Agent of Record named on that attachment -- CLAYTON J. WOODWORTH.
Once wholesalers and manufacturers discovered that the actual purchasers in the Consumers Universal Supply Company scheme were individual consumers, they stopped doing business with Consumers Universal Supply Company. To succeed in their "Solon Association" scheme, Russell, Woodworth, and other Bethelites simply had to do a better job of DEFRAUDING the suppliers.
THOMPSON, HIRSH & KUEHN COMPANY was a new business entity which was operated from the same off-premises office (away from the Bible House) which Clayton J. Woodworth used as a maildrop for the various SOLON entities.Thompson, Hirsh & Kuehn Company appeared there at the same time that the Solon entities appeared, and disappeared from that location when the Solon entities disappeared. William Thompson was a lesser known Pittsburgh Bethelite in 1905. Robert H. Hirsh was a prominent Pittsburgh Bethellite, who was involved in various and multiple Watch Tower Society administrative activities over the years, and who eventually was elected to the Board of Directors of the Watch Tower Society. John G. Kuehn was a prominent Cleveland, Ohio, Russellite, whose name had already been used to form both the UNITED CEMETERIES and the SOLON entities, and would later be used to form MENA FILM COMPANY.
Interestingly, this entity described itself as a "Manufacturers Agent". Apparently, this FRAUDULENT business entity was BOTH being used to HIDE the fraudulent purchasing of a Manufacturers' product by private individuals rather than wholesale and retail businesses, BUT this entity was also used to EXTRACT A SALES COMMISSION from the Manufacturer for having done so. The use of this entity would shield the "Solon Society" and "Logan, Land, and Whitehouse" from having to constantly interact directly with the Manufacturers -- thereby lessening the chance of the actual identities of those entities and the fraudulent scheme from ever being discovered. At the same time, while the Solon Society was extracting a 5% sales commission from the members of the Solon AssociationThompson, Hirsh & Kuehn Company would also extract whatever was the routine sales commission from the Manufacturer for having, in effect, sold the manufacturer's product to its own subsidiary. FRAUD. FRAUD. FRAUD.


Henry Rushton was a well-known businessman in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, who created quite a stir when he publically converted to the WatchTower Society in 1895 -- INTERESTINGLY, around the same time that Charles Taze Russell got involved in the startup of THE H. F. BIGGAM COMPANY (see above). Although Rushton died a JW in 1937, his wife stayed in their Methodist Church until her death in 1927. 

Henry Rushton was an immigrant from England who claimed to have been employed there as a department manager at a "cooperative" owned type department store. After coming to America, he eventually was employed in Pittsburgh by a premier Philadelphia dry goods wholesaler. Rushton and CTR must have had lots to discuss.

We SUSPECT that Henry Rushton had something to do with the formation and operation of, first, the Consumers Universal Supply Company scheme, which was late 1890s or early 1900s, and then after its failure, second, the Solon Society scheme, from around 1903 to 1906. Although we have NOT found a direct connection between Rushton and either of those two financial schemes, there is a lingering "smell" of both schemes on Henry Rushton.

In 1904, with great public fanfare, Henry Rushton and other prominent Pittsburgh businessmen -- probably acting only as figureheads -- opened "Leader Department Store". One year later, they rented the former Gusky's Department Store building, and moved "Leader Department Store", which was immediately advertised as "The largest cooperative store in America". Graciously, local residents were offered the opportunity to purchase $1,000,000.00 stock in this newly expanded enterprise. While the President and Vice President of this new venture appear to have been "figureheads", Henry Rushton appears to have been the hands-on TREASURER of the business. We have thus far found no negative info about this business other than that it simply disappeared from the newspapers after 1906.


Then, in 1911, just after CTR left town for Brooklyn, a business called THE HARRISON SYSTEM opened in Pittsburgh. It was a DUPLICATE of the Consumers Universal Supply Company scheme and the Solon Society scheme. We are still looking for "names" connected with this business -- possibly "Roland Harrison".


Here are two lawsuits which provide some needed background on Russellite Henry Rushton: 

RUSHTON v. CITY, MERCHANT, LANDLORD. In 1898-99, the Rushtons sued the City, a Merchant, and the building's owner, after Mary Rushton stepped in a hole on a Federal Street sidewalk, and allegedly injured herself severely. This lawsuit was Dismissed after the Rushtons failed to present any evidence of negligence by any of the named defendants.

HILO GUM COMPANY v. HENRY RUSHTON. In 1909, Henry Rushton decided to go into the vending machine business, and purchased 500 peanut dispensers, for $4000.00 ($117,000.00 in 2021), from a Chicago manufacturer. Rushton claimed to have LOST $852.00 his first year in business, and he refused to pay the $3000.00 balance owed to Hilo. Hilo sued in federal court and won.

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We discovered the WatchTower Society's SECRET CALIFORNIA GOLD MINE (see Page 2) back around 2002-03. We actually started that line of research after we stumbled across a webpage where a modern-day Russellite had mentioned something about Charles Taze Russell and/or the early WatchTower Society possibly owning a SILVER MINE in Montana. Even before we found the gold mine, we found this silver mine in Montana which we then believed was probably the source of that decades-old Russellite rumor. However, back in 2002-03, we did not then know that Charles Taze Russell frequently used personally-close religious associates as "front men" for his non-religion business activities, and that after his marital troubles began in the 1890s, "Pastor" Russell did so almost exclusively.

Now, in 2017, there is more online information about the ownership of this Montana silver mine. We now have evidence that this silver mine and the associated mining company were purchased and founded by members of two German immigrant families scattered across the United States -- whose only connection were family members who were very close associates of Charles Taze Russell. At worst, Charles Taze Russell would have been told by his close associates about their purchase of the multiple mining claims in Montana, and their founding of a mining company, and given all of the above, Russell likely would have wormed his way into such. At best, this entire project was conceived by Charles Taze Russell in such a way as to keep the project a secret from as many other Pittsburgh and/or Bethelite associates as possible.

MONTANA. JEFFERSON COUNTY. A half interest in the New Stake, Columbia, Dorothy and Erma quartz claims, near Clancey, has been bonded by J. Wols to F. A. Koetitz of San Francisco, $1000 being paid down. A. P. and F. J. Meng of Clancey will join Mr. Koetitz in the development of the group. -- Mining and Scientific Press, July 1901.

New Stake Mining Company. -- This company, composed of O. A. Koetitz & Brothers of California, and A. P. Ming & Brothers, of Pennsylvania, has bought the New Stake Mine at Clancy. It intends to sink the shaft to 500 ft. and continue the main tunnel 1,000 ft. The tunnel is now 200 ft. in. A full plant of machinery has been ordered. A new shaft house is under construction. A. P. Ming is manager. -- Engineering and Mining Journal, September 1901.


Montana was not granted statehood until November 1889. The capital of Helena was not accessed by railroad until 1883. Clancy, Montana is now a suburb of Helena, and in 1900, Clancy was only 12 miles south of downtown Helena.


Born around 1873 in Germany, young "Reverend" Otto Albert Koetitz, of western Ohio, converted to Russellism around 1892 -- possibly due to the efforts of his older brother Paul, who then was living in Pittsburgh with Russellite Otto Von Zech, and who was working as a printer at the "Bible House" for Charles Taze Russell (see HEUTHER above). During the 1894 Rebellion (see above), Paul Koetitz (Clara) sided with future father-in-law Otto Von Zech against Russell, and was "disfellowshipped". Soon thereafter, Paul Koetitz's younger brother, Otto Koetitz, relocated from western Ohio to Pittsburgh, and began working at WatchTower HQ as its sole German translator. Otto Koetitz quickly became Assistant Editor of the German edition of the WATCHTOWER magazine.

From 1900 to 1901, life became even better for Otto Koetitz. Otto married a fellow Bethelite, who was the daughter of a prominent Pittsburgh Russellite. Russell made Otto Koetitz a traveling Pilgrim. Otto Koetitz also was named both a Director and an Officer of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society. Then, in 1903, Otto Koetitz was sent HOME to Germany to run the WatchTower Society's third largest franchise. Otto Koetitz died in September 1916, while Russell exhausted himself with his secret California gold mine, and himself died only a month later. Was the timing of Otto Koetitz's good fortune merely coincidental?

Around 1896, Paul Koetitz and family moved from Pittsburgh back to western Ohio to be near his parents and brother, Wilhelm, an architect. In 1900, Paul Koetitz relocated his growing family to Helena, Montana. In 1901, oldest brother, F. A. Koetitz, an engineer living in California, assisted in the founding of the New Stake Mining Company. Like Frederick Alvin Koetitz***, Adolph Meng and Frederick Meng may have "vacationed" in Montana for a few days in 1901 to get things going, but none of them relocated to Montana. If anyone from the Koetitz and Meng families got their hands dirty, it was only Paul Koetitz. Notably, there are indications that the Koetitz Brothers and Meng Brothers were still obtaining mining claims in Montana as late as 1908. Paul Koetitz appears to have been involved in mining until around 1911-12.

As regards the falling out between Charles Taze Russell and Paul Koetitz back in 1894 -- re-read the large Albert D. Jones subsection above. "Pastor" Russell did not allow religious differences to get in the way of his financial investments. If Russell's past relationship with Paul Koetitz did not permit Russell to have a financial relationship with him in 1901, then why would Russell's right-hand man, Otto Koetitz, be permitted to do so?

INTERESTING, speaking of CTR's old business partner, A. D. Jones, from "New York", Jones can be found spending one week in Helena, Montana, in latter 1890, in late 1893, and in late 1895.

***F. A. Koetitz gradually became a prominent and prosperous California engineer, but in 1924, at the age of 69, "died at his home" after having been rescued from a suicide attempt in SF Bay only three months previous. Financial problems were given as the reason,  but readers should note that suicide by elderly engineers is not that uncommon given that their multiple projects are starting to "age".


Adolph Meng was the oldest of three German immigrant brothers living in greater Pittsburgh. Their mother's 1918 obituary identified her as a member of the International Bible Students Association. In 1901, the date at issue, Otto was about 21 years old, Fred was around 23, and Adolph was a few years older. Neither Adolph Meng, nor Frederick Meng, nor Otto Meng, had any experience or training with "mining" operations. In fact, around 1901, none of -- nor all of -- these three "boys" were doing anything which would have yielded sufficient income to finance a 50% interest in multiple Montana mining claims and New Stake Mining Company (whose expansion required much more investment), much less their having the willingness to so gamble.

Otto Meng is found in a 1906 listing of the Elders and Deacons at the "Bible House" congregation in Allegheny. It is safe to assume that Otto Meng's affiliation preceded 1901. In 1901, Otto Meng's two older brothers also may have been affiliated with Russell and the WatchTower Society. Otto Meng, his wife, and their two sons, eventually became foundation stones of the greater Pittsburgh area International Bible Students after Russell moved to Brooklyn in January 1909. Both of Otto's sons also eventually became lifelong Jehovah's Witnesses, and JW Elders. One of the two sons did prison time during WW2 for draft-dodging, and thereafter became a Brooklyn Bethelite in the Art Department.

One last item. Interesting, is the fact that during the 1913-14 mining season at Soda Lake, California, which was the season which preceded Charles Taze Russell's first gold mining season in the Soda Mountains, an otherwise unidentified "German" company established a camp at Soda Lake. They told local snoopers that they were testing the lake bed for minerals.



JANUARY 2021 NOTES. Even before CTR began gold mining in California (page 2), one of CTR's friends had a slip of the tongue and revealed that CTR had been involved in multiple mining operations. For several years, we have been looking for additional info on at least two additional and different type mines in two additional states. Frankly, we doubt that we ever will get the breaks that we got on these silver and gold mines before we die -- thus, why we now publish this info for other researchers.

MARCH 2021. Folks, we find most "stuff" by accident. We will add here as such is found. John Kuehn, a follower baptized around 1901, moved from Toledo to Pittsburgh with his wife and kids only a year or so later to work as a "Bethelite", until CTR moved to NYC in January 1909. Someone so described would not be owning and thereafter selling a 35 foot "yacht" during their stay at Pittsburgh Bethel. Apparently, John Kuehn's fresh appearance in Pitt gave CTR the idea of using Kuehn as the "straw seller" when CTR decided, in 1907, to sell what we admittedly are assuming was CTR's boat. There is zero indication that CTR pleasure boated when he lived in Pitt, so we further assume that this craft must have been "commercial", which raises the question of in what kind of business operation was CTR involved which included one or more boats -- on the Ohio River?

We backgrounded with all that just to get to this: In 1917, John Kuehn remarked that his main focus in recent years had been MINING. Later in the conversation, John Kuehn further remarked that he had NOT visited California since 1914. Well, in what state was Kuehn engaged in "mining" from 1914 until 1917 if not Soda Lake in California? Second, we generally have assumed that mining at Soda Lake began in Fall 1914. However, if John Kuehn moved on in 1914 from whatever he was doing for CTR at Soda Lake, then when did operations at Soda Lake actually begin?



We have been so favored as to be able to publish only those articles about Russell's business activities which we were satisfied to be "verified", but it was only an eventuality that we would encounter possible business activities that we could not so verify to our satisfaction, thus leaving us with two options -- either keep our research to ourselves (with all the obvious negatives), or publish here our "suspicions" (being so designated) along with what "evidence" we have discovered thus far, and allow others to investigate such further. Here is one of our "suspicions" of additional mining interests of the WatchTower Society.


Frank Hinman Waskey (1875-1964) was a Gold Miner in Alaska, who relocated from Minnesota during the 1898 goldrush. In 1906, 31 year-old Frank Waskey was elected as pre-statehood Alaska's FIRST non-voting "delegate" to the United States Congress. Waskey served only during the Spring session of 1907 before returning to the Alaskan wilderness to which he had become accustomed.

Interestingly, in December 1911- January 1912 andApril-May 1912, after Wasky had become a follower of Charles Taze Russell, Wasky and different partners argued two separate cases before the Supreme Court of the United States, regarding ownership of the mining claims. Waskey lost one and won one. In December 1914, a Fairbanks newspaper reported that one of the above gold mines had bankrupted most of its investors, including Waskey.

Also, in the May 1, 1912 issue of ZION'S WATCH TOWER, appeared this "Letter":


DEAR BRETHREN -- Tardy though it may be, it is nevertheless with the greatest pleasure that I am writing you an expression of my appreciation of your thoughtful courtesy to me during my visit to New York City early in 1910.

I was a stranger and you took me in, and to your kindness to me (not only then a stranger, but a sceptic as regards Present Truth) is, under God and His grace to me, due the glorious fact that I am now in the Truth.

Last January, while prospecting in the Yukon delta country, I made my consecration, and while in Nome this summer I received from Brother Bayne a copy of The Vow, and after consecration and prayer I made "My Vow to the Lord."

And, bless His name, He has been very gracious to me, as I have stumbled dreadfully time and again; but still He gives me assurance that I may yet be worthy to serve Him in some humble way. And I will earnestly pray daily that I may have the strength and the grace to renewedly endeavor to keep my Vow to the letter, to the end that "His rule may come into my heart more and more" until the glorious day when I can keep the old man under all the time and do God's will and His alone.

From Brother Bayne I also received a few copies of "STUDIES IN THE SCRIPTURES" and other of our literature. I believe it has pleased God to give me opportunities to place some of these in the hands of those who "hunger and thirst after righteousness."

Many times it has been a source of much pleasure to me to tell my friends and acquaintances of my visit to the Tabernacle and Bethel and what "manner of men" you all are. You may have forgotten that your kindness to me included the privilege of having tea with the Brothers and Sisters, with our dearly beloved Pastor Russell at the head of the table. The atmosphere there -- of clean simplicity, earnest humility, old-fashioned virtue, quiet strength, brotherly love and true reverence -- is one of my most fragrant memories.

And I want you to know, too, that each day brings home to me more and more what a special privilege it was, after tea, to meet Pastor Russell personally, and feel the magnetism and loveableness, and (though then not in the Truth) to sense the Spirit of God in this man who has labored so long and steadfastly and to such wonderful purpose in the vineyard.

No one who has read of the Man Christ Jesus, and His marvelous life, could, I believe, meet or hear Brother Russell speak without feeling that in him, at least, the world has one man of God, who, like the Savior, is "touched with a feeling of our infirmities."

I remember one dear Brother there telling me (in answer to a remark of mine that the sacrifice of himself and family of the good things of this world to be colaborers at the Brooklyn Bethel was at least worthy of surprise and perhaps commendation) that he had gained joys and pleasures of life far beyond what he had experienced in work-a-day business and conventional home.

I could not see it then, but now I know it. Just to serve Him is life itself. What joy it must be to feel and to know that "They that be 'teachers' (margin) shall shine as the brightness of the firmament, and they that turn many to righteousness as the stars forever and ever."

Dear Brethren, it would please me very much if at some suitable time you would recall to Pastor Russell the fact of our having met, and tell him that I am now striving to travel in the "more excellent way."

God's blessing on our dear Pastor and on all the dear colaborers at Brooklyn Bethel and in the Harvest Work everywhere, is the earnest, daily prayer of,

Yours in His service,



We would remind readers that the still star-struck Waskey had served a term in the United States Congress only three years earlier. Waskey was NOT someone unaccustomed to meeting and working with "celebrities". We believe that Waskey's visit to Brooklyn Bethel was in "January" 1910.

We would further note that while CTR "met" and "had tea" with Wasky and staff, since Wasky was not a "follower", unidentified staffers dealt with Wasky for whatever reason Wasky had traveled all the way from Alaska. It took one week on a ship just to get to Seattle, Washington. Then, there was a trans-continental train ride.

By the late 1920s, Waskey and his wife were being mentioned in SDA magazine articles.


If Waskey was not a "Russellite" when he first visited WatchTower HQ, in 1910, WHY was he THEN visiting WatchTower HQ, and WHY were some of the Bethelite staff treating Waskey as if HE were a "celebrity? Waskey's brief term as a "Congressman" had ended in 1907, and Waskey thereafter exited politics.

Travel from Alaska to NYC was no insignificant project in 1910, so WHY was Waskey in NYC, in 1910?

Had Waskey attended the SCOTUS argument in April 1912? Had Waskey visited WatchTower HQ a second time in 1912? What occurred, such that Waskey's "Letter" appeared in ZWT during the same time that Waskey's SCOTUS case was ongoing in Wash D.C.?

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Charles Taze Russell eventually became so accustomed to having BELIEVED whatever BULLCRAP that he spewed that he slowly became a pathological LIAR!!! As evidenced in the newspaper article copied below, dated October 1, 1906, Russell had visited ZION CITY, ILLINOIS on at least one occasion, and possibly more. MULTIPLE Russellites, including Russell's private secretary, had conducted negotiations with ZION CITY officials. Russell's private secretary not only admitted that negotiations were ongoing, but that Russell had traveled to Zion City and participated in such negotiations.

YET, after negotiations broke down without any deal being agreed, Charles Taze Russell began DENYING not only that there had been negotiations, but he even denied having had an interest in ZION CITY. In a syndicated newspaper article published nationwide in the last week of January 1907, Russell told the following LIE when the reporter questioned CTR about his failed attempt to take over ZION CITY:

"Nothing could be more untrue. I have no desire for Zion City, and there has been no negotiations whatever in the matter."

That is not merely being a LIAR. That's MENTAL ILLNESS!!


Cumberland Evening Times
Cumberland, Maryland 
October 1, 1906

Zion City Being Overrun With Teachers of Russell's Doctrine
Trying to Rent the Zion Tabernacle

A Pittburg paper of Sunday contains the following concerning the move of Pastor Russell and his followers:

Pastor C. T. Russell, the Allegheny preacher who has held a prominent position in the public eye during the past year by reason of the controversy stirred up by his teachings regarding the hereafter, and because of the sensational divorce suit his wife instituted against him and won, has turned his eye on the colony of Dowieites, Zion City, Illinois, and has started on a determined effort to win the followers of the '"prophet" over to his faith.

[Alexander John] Dowie's proselytes, disappointed in the head of the church whom they now no longer believe to be Elijah reincarnated, are at the present time suffering from a fever of religious unrest. Their illusions regarding their magnetic leader dispelled, and Dowie overthrown from the pedestal he occupied, they are eagerly listening to new, different teachers.

Pastor Russell is among a number religious teachers, some of whom style themselves "prophets," that have taken advantage of the opportunity thus afforded and are making converts among the disaffected Zionites. According to a dispatch from Chicago, Zion City is overrun with such teachers. Five of them have appeared within the last two weeks, and some of them are making remarkable headway; having secured followers even among heads of Dowie's church.

Pastor Russell has been among the most energetic of missionaries. He made a visit to Zion City three weeks ago, and made arrangements for the propagation of his faith. He had a conversation with Overseer Wilbur Glenn Voliva, which was of an entirely friendly nature, according to Albert Williamson, Pastor Russell's secretary.

Upon his return to Allegheny he immediately sent a colporteur to Zion City, who is now selling to the Dowieites the publications of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society, at 610 Arch street, Allegheny, Pennsylvania, the concern that publishes Pastor Russell's books and other writings.

The colporteur is having remarkable success. So confident is Pastor Russell of gaining control of Zion City that Mrs. William Hotchkiss, one of his followers, made a liberal offer to Receiver Hately to rent the [Zion] Tabernacle for a year, but her offer was not accepted. [She is said to have stated that she acted as the representative of Pastor Russell. -- original article] SEE BELOW!!

Receiver Predicts Ruin.

Receiver Hately predicts bankruptcy and the ruin of the city unless the quarrels and dissensions cease. He said: "This following after these new prophets, no matter how sincere be, is ruinous."

When Pastor Russell was seen and asked what success he was having in Zion City, he referred the questioner to Mr. [Albert] Williamson, his secretary. Williamson said: 

"The Dowieites are an honest and sincere people, but greatly misguided. Realizing that they have been deceived in Dowie, they are turning earnestly to study the Holy Writ and are blindly searching for truth. We regard this as an opportune time to disseminate our doctrines among them [steal Zion City, so that we can move out of Allegheny County and Pennsylvania, and get away from those darn Courts which keep ruling against us.]

["If Mrs. Hotchkiss tried to rent the Tabernacle, she did so without advising us of the action. She does not represent Pastor Russell. She is merely a good friend of ours, and is of the same faith." -- original article] EDITOR: THIS PROVES HOW WATCHTOWER SOCIETY OFFICIALS CAN STARE INTO THE EYES OF REPORTERS AND OTHER NON-BELIEVERS AND TELL THEM A BOLD FACE LIE!!!

Will Soon Publish Book.

We do think that Christ is to return to the earth in a very short time and establish His kingdom [, but we are not Second Adventists]. We believe that he will give every person that has had no opportunity to know what is right such a chance [, but we are not Universalists]. We deduce these beliefs from the teachings of the Scriptures [, unlike other denominations]. Pastor Russell will soon publish a book called, "The Time is at Hand", in which the reasons for this belief are clearly stated [, because the previous avalanche of unwanted and unread literature we have published and sold does not teach any of this exact same garbage]. ...


The Brooklyn Daily Eagle
February 28, 1912

Manila Paper Exposes "Pastor's" Press Agent
Russell Paid for Newspaper Puff In Philippines, But It Didn't Appear
Globe-Circling Junket Gets a Hard Knock, and Audience Is Reduced to 800 Filipinos

An interesting sidelight on the difficulties that are being encountered by "Pastor" Russell and his press agents in their record-breaking world tour of "investigation" of foreign missions, is furnished by extracts from the Manila Cablenews-American, just received in Brooklyn. This paper tells of a curious experience it had with an industrious but wabbly press agent who wanted to pay money to get reading puffs of "Pastor" Russell into the columns of the paper.

The "Pastor" arrived in Manila on Sunday, January 14. On Saturday, the Cablenews-American reprinted from The [Brooklyn Daily] Eagle the account of "Pastor" Russell's prediction that the world would end in October, 1914, with an ingenious suggestion that his followers prepare for the windup by turning over to him and his associates their worldly wealth. The Manila paper put this caption over the article,

World to End In October 1914 Warns 'Pastor' Russell
Get in on the Ground Floor by Getting Rid of Your Property Invites Unique Evangelist

This publicity had the effect of nullifying the work of the Russell advance press agent and kept down the audience of the "Pastor" the following day to a few hundred, chiefly Filipinos. On Tuesday the Cablenews-American printed the following interesting statement of its dealings with the Russell agent:
"Pastor" Russell, the much-advertised religionist, who visited Manila Sunday, gave out an interview in which he said that there was no truth whatever in the article copied from The Brooklyn Eagle and published in the Cablenews-American of January 13. Yet, in the second paragraph of his interview, he said: "It is true that we spent $148,000 ($4.2 million in 2021 dollars) last year." 

Advertising Paid For, but Another Side Is Discovered

In view of the fact that "Pastor" Russell has expressed himself as aggrieved that the Cablenews-American published the article in question, we take the liberty to make the following statement:

Some time ago "Pastor" Russell's advance agent came to Manila and arranged for advertising with the Cablenews-American for the much-heralded address on "Where Are the Dead?" The money was deposited in the business office of the Cablenews-American, and a number of laudatory articles in the form of paid reading notices were left. After the advance agent had left the city the attention of this paper was called to the fact that there was another side to "Pastor" Russell's propaganda that was not advertised in stories left by his advance agent.

The article published on January 13, was taken from The Brooklyn Eagle, against which "Pastor" Russell says he has a damage suit pending for $50,000. There are other records of a similar nature. For example, there are the court records of the District of Columbia in a case in which "Pastor" Russell had sued the Washington Post for a sum as large as that which he now asks from The Brooklyn Eagle, but in which, after the testimony in the case was heard, the Jury awarded "Pastor" Russell $1 damages.

The testimony in that case is most interesting as bearing on the claim by "Pastor" Russell that his evangel is not tainted with a desire to acquire filthy lucre. It shows that at the time he was professing that he was not engaged in business of any kind, and that he has given his time almost exclusively to religious work for the past fifteen years, he was one of the incorporators of the United States Coal and Coke Company, capitalized at $100,000; that he was interested in the Pittsburg Asphaltum Company. Ltd.; that he was interested in the California Asphaltum Company. Ltd., and in the Silica Brick Company; that he was interested in the Brazilian Turpentine Company, Ltd., with a capital stock of $100,000, he holding the majority interest, and that the offices or headquarters of some of these companies, if not all, were in the Bible House in Alleghany, Pa., from which he operated.

It also appeared from this testimony that many of "Pastor" Russell's associates in his advertising plant on Hicks street, Brooklyn, where the $148,000. was received last year, while ostensibly receiving only [$10.00] a month, at some time or other accumulated thousands of dollars worth of stock in various corporations, including those aforementloned in which "Pastor" Russell was interested.

Said Article Was False, but Admitted Truth of Statements

Yesterday Dr. Jones, who belongs to "Pastor" Russell's party, came to this office to complain about the article published on January 13. He started out by saying, like "Pastor" Russell, that it was entirely false, but, on being pinned down to the truth or falsity of the statements contained in each paragraph, he was compelled to admit that they were true, with the exception that, whereas the article said "Pastor" Russell predicted the world would end in 1914, he had asserted that the end of the "Gentile Times" would arrive in October, 1914, and the present dispensation would end, and on the point that "Pastor" Russell was said to urge his followers to contribute their material wealth to the propaganda in order to have a part in the new order of things, he said that "Pastor" Russell urged the personal consecration of hls followers, and that, of course, the consecration of the man's self meant the consecration of his pocketbook, also, hence the contributions unasked for, aggregating $148,000., received last year at his headquarters have been entirely voluntary gifts. Dr. Jones was reminded that the man who purchases a gold brick does so voluntarily after the gold brick artist has had his say.

Suffice to say that the money left in this office by "Pastor" Russell's advance agent was returned to "Pastor" Russell upon his arrival in this city, and the laudatory articles left by him for publication were not printed. Our reason for this attitude toward the matter is this: 

Inasmuch as we accepted and published his advance agent's estimate of "Pastor" Russell and his work, we regarded it only fair to the public that we should present the facts on which other people had formed a different estimate of the man and his work in order that our readers might be fully prepared to judge for themselves.


The Third World's Largest Supplier of Toilet Paper
Planet Earth's Largest Waster of Trees
1879 - 2019

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